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In my opinion the work of Sir John Henniker 
Heaton has done more to draw the Empire 
together than all the speeches of all the statesmen 
on both sides of the ocean. 

Earl Curzon of Kedleston. 


Printed in Great Britain 
iy Tumbullfy Sjtars, Edinburgh 














I KNEW Sir John Henniker Heaton well in 
Australia, and since 1909 well in England. Per- 
haps the two leading attributes of his personality 
on the emotional side were his intense public 
spirit and his unfailing geniality. Loving hands have 
written his life. As one of the inner circle of his 
friends, I can add a hearty endorsement of the filial 
tribute to his memory. 

I came to know him many years ago. Mr Samuel 
Bennett brought us together in Sydney. Mr Bennett 
was one of the best Englishmen I knew in Australia. 
By sheer force of character, backed up by a robust 
intellect, with little capital and no patronage, he 
established the fortune of two most successful news- 
papers in Sydney, one a daily and the other a weekly. 
What is more, Samuel Bennett was in the forefront 
of those public benefactors whose success, great as 
it was, was not greater than the fine impression it 
enabled him to make upon public opinion and 
Australian journalism. 

The fact that such a man " took to " the subject 
of this biography and gave him his important start 
in life, as well as his only daughter, who was the 
crowning happiness of Sir John Henniker Heaton's 
life, in itself " speaks volumes " in favour of the man 
who afterwards became " the Member for Australia." 



I suppose no man outside ministerial circles exer- 
cised a stronger or more useful influence upon " red 
tape " administration during the past thirty years 
than did this great Postal Reformer. 

In many ways the tremendous obstacles to human 
intercourse, which distance involves, have been lessened 
by modern invention and commercial enterprise. 
But for the labours of Sir John the splendid successes 
that have been slowly but surely won by that David 
of Reform over the Goliath of Post Office routine 
might have been indefinitely postponed. Sometimes 
such humanizing victories are dearly bought. Not 
so with a system of penny postages covering world- 
wide distances. Not so with the marvellous expansion 
of electrified messages between mind and mind and 
market and market, which means the creation of new 
worlds of intellectual as well as industrial progress. 

Those great achievements have been a source of 
wealth beyond " the dreams of avarice " in the case 
of private enterprise, and the fears of ruin which 
daunted the custodians of postal revenues have been 
converted into magnificent profits. 

The bodily presence of our friend has returned to 
dust, but his spirit may often look down gladly upon 
world-wide spheres which have been brightened by 
his devoted dauntless labours labours that contain 
germs of even greater blessings in the years to come. 

MY grateful thanks are due to Earl Curzon, 
Lord Blyth, Lord Beresford, Sir George 
Reid, Sir Charles Bruce, Mr Herbert 
Samuel, Mr Austen Chamberlain, Com- 
mendatore Marconi, Mr Wilfrid Meynell, Mr T. P. 
O'Connor, Colonel R. W. Renshaw, Mr William 
Heaton, Mr Harry Brittain, and Mrs Algernon Paget, 
for the help they have given me ; and to all those who 
have kindly allowed their letters to be published. 

My acknowledgments are also due to the Editors of 
The Times, The Nineteenth Century, The Daily Graphic, 
The Graphic, and to the Editor of The Leisure Hour, 
for permission to quote at length from an article in 
that Magazine, entitled "The Mother of Parliaments" 
(Chapter II.). 

The postal statistics and facts are taken in all cases 
from my father's publications and private notes. 







V. As A TRAVELLER, i. BY LAND ... 57 


VII. As A HOST 103 



X. A CHAPTER BY T. P. O'CONNOR . . . 131 




XIV. As A POSTAL REFORMER (continued) . . .198 









INDEX 283 


SIR JOHN HENNIKER HEATON. Photogravure . . Frontispiece 








PENNY POSTAGE ....... 62 










PENNY STAMP ........ 192 




1886 216 



THE PENNY STAMP, 1905 . . . . . . 218 










A MAN of Kent, John Henniker Heaton was 
born at Rochester, on the i8th of May, 
1848. He was the only son of Lt.-Colonel 
John Heaton, of Heaton, Lancashire, born 
1810, who married, May 8th, 1841, Elizabeth Anne, 
daughter of John Henniker, 1 of Rochester, and died 

The early years of John Henniker Heaton's life 
were spent in the old Cathedral city of Rochester, 
where his father was quartered. His happiest 
memories of boyhood were those of the long summer 
hours he spent bathing in the Medway and, after 
a swim, lying on the banks reading and re-reading 
his favourite books, 'The Pathfinder" and "The 
Last of the Mohicans," and dreaming the long, long 
dreams of boyhood. 

He had an almost passionate love for books of 
adventure and sea voyage, a love intensified, perhaps, 
by the rigid discipline of his home, where day-dreams 
were forbidden, and unquestioning obedience enjoined 
as the chief virtue of childhood. 

1 See " Hennikers of Senham," in Hasted's "History of Kent.' 



He was educated at Kent House School, an old 
double-fronted Georgian building of rather curious 
aspect, which is now a private house. As a schoolboy, 
the future Postal Reformer was remarkable chiefly 
for his gift of memorizing poetry and prose. At the 
age of ten he knew by heart the whole of Pope's 
" Essay on Man," and could recite page after page 
of Motley's " Rise of the Dutch Republic." The 
historic associations of old Rochester, the Cathedral, 
the Castle overlooking the great stretch of river, could 
hardly fail to arouse in a boy feelings of romance 
and adventure. 

At the age of sixteen, after pursuing his studies 
at King's College, " Adventure lit her stars " for 
him, and he was free to roam the world at his 

In those days Australia was looked upon as a 
kind of Promised Land for younger sons, and their 
impoverished elder brothers, and it was to Australia 
that John Heaton's eyes were eagerly turned. With 
a light heart and a still lighter pocket, he left England 
for the country of sunshine that was to be his adopted 
home for many years, and where after some vicissitudes 
he was to gain his first experience of the good fortune 
that followed him ever after. Those who knew him 
at that period speak of him as a tall, thin youth, with 
deep hollows showing beneath his high cheek bones, 
eyes large and kindling and an indescribable " some- 
thing " that marked him out. 

The first part of his life in Australia was spent 
in the bush, where he found employment on the great 
sheep stations. With no previous experience of 
agricultural life, he made all the blunders and mis- 
takes peculiar to young Englishmen fresh out from 


home. Here he built up the iron constitution that 
was to stand him in such good stead in later years, 
and here, too, he made friendships that were to last 
as long as life itself. During the months he spent 
in solitary rides from one isolated station to another, 
the seeds were sown of his future campaign in the 
cause of cheapening postal and telegraphic communi- 
cation throughout the world. 

Leaving the bush, John Heat on spent some happy 
years in Parramatta, where he joined the staff of 
" The Mercury." For three months, December 1869- 
February 1870, he acted as Town Clerk of Parramatta. 
Fate, " playing her wonted phantasy," decreed that 
he should next edit a paper in Goulbourn with the 
predestined title 'The Penny Post." From "The 
Penny Post " he passed on to " The Times " of 
Parramatta a natural transition in view of the part 
he was later to act as connecting link between another 
" Penny Post " and another " Times." 

His next move was to Sydney, where he joined 
the staff of ' The Australian Town and Country 
Journal." This journal and "The Evening News" 
were owned by Mr Samuel Bennett, the doyen of 
Australian journalists, and author of an exhaustive 
work on Australian history. 

Mr Bennett was a remarkable example of the 
men of high character who in those early days had 
already succeeded in making the Australian press 
honoured and respected. Though he was never in 
Parliament, no Cabinet was ever formed without 
obtaining his views and advice. The son of a Cornish- 
man, he united in his personality the integrity and 
bluntness of speech of his compatriots with the kindest 
of hearts and the most generous of instincts. " A 


hater of sham and humbugs " was said of him in his 
life and might serve for his epitaph. 

" He was the best friend I ever had " was the 
description of him given by John Heat on, who was 
deeply grateful for the good fortune that brought him 
under the influence of Mr Bennett's erudition. 

After working some time on " The Australian Town 
and Country Journal" there came a memorable day 
when John Heaton was bidden to luncheon at Mr 
Bennett's home. Presiding over the table was the 
lady who was to share his life for forty-one years of 
radiant happiness. Rose Bennett was the only 
daughter of the house, and the beloved sister of her 
three younger brothers. There is a charming portrait 
of her at this period, showing her dark wavy hair 
parted in the middle and her soft dark eyes. It was 
perhaps more her sweetness of expression, gentle 
voice and dignity of bearing than any special regu- 
larity of feature that won for her the admiration she 
received in so large a measure. She is celebrated 
as " Rose Lorraine " in the poem of that name by 
Henry Kendall. This poem has been described as 
one of the three saddest love-poems in the English 


Sweet watermoons blown into lights 

Of flying gold on pool and creek, 
And many sounds and many sights 

Of younger days are back this week. 
I cannot say I sought to face 

Or greatly cared to cross again 
The subtle spirit of the place 

Whose life is mixed with Rose Lorraine. 


What though her voice rings clearly through 

A nightly watch I gladly keep, 
No wish have I to start anew 

Heart fountains that have ceased to leap, 
Here face to face with different days 

And later things that plead for love, 
It would be worse than wrong to raise 

A phantom far too fain to move. 

But, Rose Lorraine ah, Rose Lorraine, 

I'll whisper now where no one hears, 
If you should chance to meet again 

The man you kissed in soft dead years, 
Just say for once, " He suffered much," 

And add to this " His fate was worst 
Because of me my voice my touch " 

There is no passion like the first. 

If I that breathe your slow sweet name, 

As one breathes low notes on a flute, 
Have vexed your peace with word of blame, 

The phrase is dead, the lips are mute. 
But when I turn towards the wall 

In days of storm in nights of rain, 
I often wish you would recall 

Your tender speeches, Rose Lorraine. 

Because you see I thought them true 

And did not count you self-deceived, 
And gave myself in all to you, 

And looked on love as Life achieved. 
Then came the sudden bitter change, 

The fastened lips, the dumb despair, 
The first few weeks were very strange, 

And long and sad and hard to bear. 

No woman lives with power to burst 

My passion's bonds and set me free, 
For Rose is last where Rose was first, 

And only Rose is fair to me. 
The faintest memory of her face, 

That wilful face that hurt me so, 
Is followed by a fiery trace 

That Rose Lorraine must never know. 


I keep a faded ribbon string 

You used to wear about your throat, 
And of this pale this perished thing, 

I think I know its threads by rote. 
God help such love, to hold your hand, 

To linger where your feet might fall, 
You marvellous girl ! my soul would stand 

The worst of hell its fires and all. 

On July i6th, 1873, the marriage between John 
Henniker Heaton and Rose Bennett took place at 
St James's Church, Sydney. 

No one who knew John Heaton intimately could 
doubt that he owed much of his success to the happi- 
ness of his married life, where he found in his wife 
the sympathy and companionship that is so essential 
to a public man. Those meeting Lady Heaton for 
the first time little dreamed of the depth of character 
that lay beneath her gracious gentle manner. Her 
sincerity of heart, her loyalty to friends and her 
intense love of truth won the respect of all her circle. 
Her sound critical judgment was greatly valued by 
her husband, who never wrote an article or prepared 
a speech without referring it to her opinion. 

On her advice he would leave out what he de- 
scribed as " the best part of all," but when results 
had justified the omission he was the first to acknow- 
ledge its wisdom. Sir John and Lady Henniker 
Heaton remained lovers all their life : when separated, 
not a day passed without an interchange of letters ; 
and he spoke of her always as " my dear little 

During the early years of their married life John 
Heaton nearly succumbed to an attack of typhoid 
fever. Hope was given up by the doctors, and in 
consequence of a premature notice of his death in the 



newspapers a funeral wreath arrived at the house ! 
But his wife's devoted nursing undoubtedly saved 
his life. When all hope was over and he was thought 
to be sinking, she had the courage to disobey the 
doctors, who had stopped further nourishment as 
useless. She insisted on continuing the treatment 
so long as life remained unextinguished. Her calm- 
ness and courage won the day, and she had the joy 
of nursing him back to restored health and vigour. 

For ten years after their marriage they made 
their home in Australia, during which time John 
Henniker Heaton became connected with the public 
life of Sydney. He was the author of a standard 
book of reference, " The Australian Dictionary of Dates 
and Men of the Time." 

In 1882, he stood for Parliament as a candidate 
for the electorate of young New South Wales, but 
was defeated by a small majority. Mr P. W. Crowe, 
of Brisbane, has supplied the following notes : 

"It is now three and thirty years since I first 
met Sir John Henniker Heaton, when I was a candi- 
date with him in his first entry into political life. 

" He was then in the prime of life, a man of 
imposing presence, well built, tall, dark, and active, 
while his bearing was extremely courteous and kind 
to all. 

' The elections of New South Wales about this 
time were of an exciting character. The education 
question was at fever height. The abolition of state 
aid to Denominational Schools was uppermost in the 
minds of the people. Archbishop Vaughan took a 
great part in the controversy as well as other Roman 
Catholic and Anglican Clergy, who eloquently opposed 
the onslaught of the Parks Government on the schools. 


" We threw in our lot with the denominationalists, 
and fought for the rights of conscience. The two 
other issues we put before the electorate were the 
crediting of the annual rent payable to the Crown 
by selectors in payment of the purchase money, and 
the policy of protection. The former would help to 
settle people on the land and the latter to convert 
N.S.W. into a manufacturing country. The policy 
which we advocated is now the policy of not only 
N.S.W. but all Australia. 

' These were the days of the roaring camp when 
Timora Gold Field broke out. There were upwards 
of 10,000 miners in the field of whom few, unfortunately 
for us, had votes. We had their sympathy, their 
substantial help, and their regrets when we were 
defeated at the ballot box by a very small majority." 

For John Henniker Heaton this was a disappoint- 
ment that was to have far-reaching results. It 
turned his thoughts to England, and a parliamentary 
career that might be open for him in his native country 
as member for a Kentish constituency. 

In 1883 he represented New South Wales as 
Commissioner at the Amsterdam Exhibition ; he 
also represented Tasmania at the Berlin International 
Telegraphic Conference, where he succeeded in getting 
a very large reduction in the cost of cable messages 
to Australia. He was appointed Commissioner for 
New South Wales at the Indian and Colonial Ex- 
hibition in London in 1886, and throughout his life 
he never ceased to forward Australian interests. 
" The Member for Australia " was a name conferred 
on him. 

The year 1884 saw him and his family settled in 
London, which was henceforth to be their home. 

At the General Election of 1885, John Henniker 


Heaton was returned as Conservative member for 
Canterbury, which seat he held for twenty-six years, 
when ill-health caused him to retire from Parliament 
at the dissolution of 1910. 

His work as a Postal Reformer is dealt with fully 
in another part of the book. His title by common 
consent was that of Father of Imperial Penny Postage. 
Owing to his exertions, the cost of cabling to differ- 
ent parts of the world was very greatly reduced. 
Imperial Penny Postage first came into force on 
Christmas day 1898 ; Anglo-American postage was 
won by him in 1908 ; Anglo- Australian Penny Postage 

His valuable work was warmly recognized. The 
Freedom of the City of London was presented to him 
in a gold casket in July 1899, and in the same year 
he was given the Freedom of the City of Canterbury 
in a silver casket. 

In 1911, while visiting Australia, a baronetcy 
was conferred on him, and on his return a public 
welcome at the Guildhall was given to him under 
the auspices of the British Empire League. Dis- 
tinguished representatives of the Empire, presided 
over by Lord Curzon, were gathered together to do 
him honour. 

Sir John Henniker Heaton refused a K.C.M.G. 
four times ; on the last occasion, owing to his absence 
abroad he was actually gazetted, but he never used 
the title. 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, John, 2nd 
Lt. Welsh Horse, who was born 1877, and served with 
loth Batt. Oxford Yeomanry in South Africa (medal, 
3 clasps). He married, in 1902, The Hon. Katharine 
Mary Sermonda Burrell, only surviving child of the 


fifth Baron Gwydyr, and has three sons and one 

This then, in brief, is the life story of the Postal 
Reformer, Sir John Henniker Heaton. 

It has been thought best to divide the book into 
chapters illustrating the different characteristics and 
divers interests of Sir John as Postal Reformer, 
Politician, and Traveller. 

Some one once said to him that his great work 
would never be forgotten. 

" Perhaps not," he replied, " but all my good stories 
will be forgotten, even by my children." 

An endeavour has been made in these pages to 
preserve some of his favourite stories of his fellow-men 
and their doings. 

It may be urged that, in trying to paint a picture 
of Sir John and his contemporaries, the canvas has 
become so overcrowded that there is a danger of 
being " unable to see the wood for the trees." I 
can only say that it is impossible to visualize Sir John 
as a solitary figure. Always one sees him surrounded 
by a crowd of friends, always one hears his hearty 
laugh ringing out above the rest. So clear grows the 
vision that even as I write I can almost see the familiar 
group almost hear the happy voices. 



IN 1885 H. H. made a pilgrimage to Canterbury 
to seek the suffrage of the ecclesiastical capital 
of the Empire. The morning he left London 
for the election he was waylaid on the steps of 
his Club by Lord Halsbury, who thrust a kindly arm 
through his, saying : 

" I hear you are going down to Canterbury. They 
are sure to ask you if you are in favour of payment 
of Members, but you must reply that you are in 
favour of the good old practice of payment for voters 
and a pension for them afterwards." 

After an agreeably contested fight, H. H. was duly 
elected Conservative Member for Canterbury with 
a majority of rather over a thousand. 

Never a good speaker, H. H. from the first devoted 
his energies to harassing the life of the Postmaster- 
General then Mr Cecil Raikes by asking questions 
on Post Office Administration. H. H.'s persistent 
questioning, if a source of irritation to the Postmaster- 
General, was the cause of some amusement to the 
House of Commons. 

Old members will recall the cheers and laughter 
that greeted the announcement that " the Honourable 
Member for Canterbury will be relieved to hear 

that henceforth ' mother-in-law ' will be counted as 



one word in a telegram, and an additional grievance 
to the relationship will thus be removed." The 
Honourable Member for Canterbury replied that he 
was not in a position to benefit by the change, as he 
grieved to say that his mother-in-law had long been 
in a better world. His efforts for the reform had been 
made solely on behalf of Honourable Members who 
were not so unfortunately situated as himself. 

The use of questions in the House, which H. H. 
found so effective a weapon, did not however commend 
itself to all the members of his family. There was a 
small midshipman son who did not fail to express his 
views on the matter. One day when R. was home 
on leave H. H. said to him : 

" I am always very glad to get your letters, but 
I notice you never tell me anything of interest about 
the Navy." 

" No, thank you," replied the small midshipman, 
" too many of our fellows have had their careers 
simply ruined by their fathers asking questions in 

" One day in the Parliamentary calendar," wrote 
" The Manchester Courier," " is Mr Henniker Heaton's 
own particular festival the day on which the Vote 
for the salary of the Postmaster-General comes up 
for discussion. In the intervals between the re- 
currence of these festivals the great mundane move- 
ment goes on, apparently unheeded by the member 
for Canterbury : the House of Commons sees little 
of him and hears him still less. Irish Land Bills 
are introduced, Army schemes are agitated, crises in 
the Far East come and go, but the elect of Canterbury 
gives no sign. While the world with careless levity 
permits itself to be distracted by all this multitude 
of interests, Mr Henniker Heaton keeps his searching 



gaze fixed upon the goings out and the comings in 
of the Postmaster-General. Nothing happens at St 
Martins-le-Grand but he hath note of it. Nay, that 
is ludicrously to understate the case. Nothing happens 
in the smallest post office of the most remote and 
obscure township of the whole Empire but Mr Henniker 
Heat on hears of it, and duly enters the circumstances 
in his inexorable record. He collects grievances as 
another man collects postage stamps or pictorial post 
cards ; he has a museum of them, and his supremest 
satisfaction in life is to display his collection to the 
House of Commons and to dilate with affectionate 
pride on the rarer and more curious specimens." 

When H. H. entered the House, there were more 
men of " light and leading " than in any previous 
Victorian Parliament. 

On the Government benches, were Sir Michael 
Hicks Beach, W. H. Smith, Goschen, Balfour, Lord 
Randolph Churchill, Sir Richard Webster, Sir Edward 
Clarke, J. P. B. Robertson, Colonel Saunderson, Lord 
Charles Beresford, Sir John Gorst, and Sir Richard 

On the Opposition side, Gladstone, Chamberlain, 
Bright, Sir William Harcourt, Parnell, Bradlaugh, 
Sir Charles Russell, Frank Lockwood, Right Hon. 
A. W. Peel (the Speaker), and Sir Robert Peel. 

The remarkable sight was seen of four brothers 
being sworn in simultaneously : Lords George, Claude, 
Frederick, and Ernest Hamilton. 

The early years of H. H.'s parliamentary life were 
memorable for the struggle that surged round the 
Home Rule question, the close divisions and fierce 
debates when the House sat all night. 

Whatever the supporters of Home Rule may 
feel, the withdrawal of the Irish Members from 


Westminster will deprive the House of much of its 
interest and colour. 

Parnell and H. H. were on friendly terms. " Un- 
known and unknowable, trusting least those on whom 
he most depends, he rules Ireland by the absence of 
every quality usually attributed to Irishmen." 

From Kilmainham, Parnell frequently wrote to 
H. H. saying that a firmer alliance could be made 
with the Conservative Party on educational and 
religious questions than with the Liberal Party ; 
and at one time Parnell worked hard to make what 
he called " business " terms with the Conservatives. 

Parnell's powers of detachment were remarkable. 
He came into the House one afternoon when the fiercest 
excitement prevailed, regarding the publication by 
" The Times " of the forged letters. 

In a short speech, he denied the authorship of 
the letters, and then walking into the Lobby engaged 
H. H. in earnest conversation. Every one thought 
he was speaking of the political event then stirring 
men's minds in reality this is what Parnell said : 

" I have just read in the afternoon paper that a 
mountain of gold has been discovered in Western 
Australia and that some tons of the specimens have 
been sent home to you." 

H. H. replied that it was true, and gave Parnell 
about a wineglassful of the " crushing." He took 
it away with him, and to the bewilderment of his 
party no one saw him for a week, and very few indeed 
knew his address. On that day week, almost at 
the same hour, he again appeared in the lobby. Walk- 
ing up to H. H. he said, smilingly : 

" I have analysed the specimens, and they go 
thirty-two ounces of gold to the ton." H. H. said 


he was wrong. Parnell then took from his pocket, 
a scrap of paper and read " twenty-seven ounces 
of gold and five ounces of silver." H. H. replied that 
this was indeed remarkable, for it exactly coincided 
with the analysis of Messrs Johnson, Matthey & 
Co., the famous metallurgists. Parnell then showed 
the small pin's point of gold he had obtained to H. H. 
who expressed surprise at his work. 

" The fact is," said Parnell, " I take an interest in 
the matter. I have a small workshop to test the 
minerals in the mountains of Wicklow, some portion 
of which I own." 

While his hundred of thousands of adherents were 
fulminating against " The Times," he was quietly 
working away testing minerals in his laboratory ! 

Among the many famous men who sat in the 
House when H. H. first entered it, there was perhaps 
none who made a more vivid impression on his mind 
than Lord Randolph Churchill. The following letter, 
marked " Private," was written in the summer of 1887, 
after his meteoric and disastrous resignation, when 
the estrangement from his recent colleagues was still 
wide and unbridged : 


" I am not able to make speeches in the country 
without having given to them beforehand several 
hours of thought. Now how can I find this time just 
now ? 

The study and work necessary to make the Army 
and Navy Estimates Committee useful absorbs all 
my time. Further the * * * and Co. lot have 
behaved so infamously to me, that I cannot bring 
myself to speak in any part of the country where they 
may be benefited by my so speaking. When times 
are more propitious, which they may be possibly 


before very long, it would give me great pleasure to 
address your constituents at Canterbury. In the 
meantime I pray a little patience. 
Yours very truly, 


" The sooner the Tories learn that the combination 
Salisbury, Goschen, and Smith is useless for election 
purposes, the sooner their defeats will come to an end." 

One evening H. H. was dining with Lord Randolph 
Churchill when the latter was in a mood half-pessi- 
mistic, half-playful. Their wants were attended to 
by an old waiter called Brown, a well-known character 
in the Member's Dining-Room. 

"Ah, well," said Lord Randolph, "it's a great 
comfort to feel that when I die I can at least be sure 
that Brown will put a wreath on my grave." 

' With the greatest of pleasure, my lord," replied 
the faithful Brown, stepping forward with a low bow. 

It was Lord Randolph Churchill who performed 
the feat and thereby won a wager of running across 
Westminster Bridge while Big Ben was striking 
twelve. H. H. was among those who knew Lord 
Randolph at the zenith of his power and political 
fame, and none of Lord Randolph's friends grieved 
more genuinely when the tide turned. 

There was one memorable evening when he was 
speaking in the House. His voice grew husky and 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, turned to a new 
and totally obscure member with the request : 

" Would it compromise you to get me a glass of 
water ? " 

The satirical note belying the apparent humility 
of the request could hardly pass unnoticed. 


At this time Gladstone, though in Opposition, 
was the most interesting personality in the House, 
and every story about him was treasured up and 
passed from mouth to mouth. 

Some one once wished to know where Gladstone 
was to be found. 

" Oh," was the reply, " Gladstone has gone to the 
provinces, to explain the difference between Eternal 
and Everlasting." 

Rigorous in maintaining the rules of the House, 
Gladstone would never overlook the slightest in- 
fringement on the part of any member. One quiet 
summer evening when the House was almost empty 
H. H. found himself sitting next Admiral Sir Edward 
Commerell. His attention was attracted by Glad- 
stone sitting on the front Opposition bench frowning 
with every sign of annoyance. As Sir Edward did 
not stir, Gladstone rose and went up to the Speaker. 

The Serjeant-at-Arms then approached Sir Edward, 
and told him that he was out of order as at least one 
foot should be resting on the floor of the House. Sir 
Edward had one foot curled up under him, and the 
other partly on the bench, a grave breach of order. 
The House laughed, but Gladstone had shown the 
members a rule and carried his point. His instinctive 
Conservatism had asserted itself. 

Although opposed in politics, H. H. always spoke 
of "' the honour of having sat in the House with 
Gladstone." Among his papers there is a letter, 
dated February loth, 1891, from Gladstone in reply 
to a message of condolence. 


I thank you heartily, and I know that in thank- 
ing you I thank many. In a great affliction, a most 


heavy loss, God has been most kind to us, and so has 

Be assured I had never dreamed that barriers 
erected by the necessities of politics would check the 
flow of human sympathy within your walls. 
With every good wish, 
I remain, 

Faithfully yours, 


Early in his political life H. H. was presented to 
Lady Salisbury, by the late Lord Salisbury, as " a 
supporter of mine who is engaged in sticking the 
Empire together with a penny stamp." At the same 
time Lord Salisbury went on to say that when he 
visited Australia twenty-six years before he had 
brought home some young Australian gum-trees, 
which were then flourishing in the home of his nephew, 
Arthur Balfour, at Whittingehame. 

There was a certain young Welsh Member who 
made a rather striking speech in the House one day. 
H. H. stopped him in the Lobby to congratulate him. 
Many years later Mr Lloyd George surprised H. H. 
by recalling the incident, adding : 

" You were the first Tory Member who ever said 
an encouraging word to me, and I have never forgotten 

A tragic occurrence once took place in the House 
of which H. H. was a witness. H. H. was sitting in 
the gallery with Kitchener listening to a debate on 
a public grant of money for the hero of Omdurman. 
A member rose to oppose the motion. While speaking 
his voice became unsteady, and his hands lost their 
power. Brandy was brought to him. He sat down 
for an instant and then rose again to resume his speech. 


He dropped the glass of brandy and fell into the arms 
of some fellow-members. He was carried out to the 
back of the Speaker's chair and died a few hours later. 
This was Mr Wallace, one of the members for Edinburgh, 
who made an immense but short-lived reputation 
in the House by his witty and audacious speeches. 

From the commencement, H. H. was an advocate 
of votes being given to women of property, and he 
was one of the backers of the Conciliation Bill. He 
was totally opposed to Militancy, and thought with 
many others that the women's cause was seriously 
injured by its adoption. H. H. was one day attending 
a banquet at the Guildhall when one of the beautiful 
stained glass windows was broken by a suffragette. 
Some splinters of glass fell upon him, slightly cutting 
his head. Christabel Pankhurst made the amende 
honorable by a charming letter of apology. 

After a demonstration made in the House of 
Commons, it became necessary to close the Ladies' 
Gallery to all except personal relatives of honourable 
Members, who were responsible for their good be- 
haviour. The closing of the Gallery entailed much 
hardship on many women genuinely interested hi 
politics, who were thus debarred from listening to 

Many were the devices adopted by obliging members 
to establish " cousinships " with their fair friends 
who wanted tickets for the Ladies' Gallery. The 
most ingenuous excuse offered in exculpation was 
that of Mr Dudley Ward, the good-looking young 
member for Southampton, who explained gravely 
that both his guests had promised to be sisters to him. 

It was impossible to be with H. H. in the House 
without realizing how deeply he loved every stone 


in the building, and what pride he felt in its glorious 
traditions. He was never tired of showing his friends 
over the beautiful old hall and the little chapel in 
the crypt, where his grandson, Peter Joseph Henniker 
Heaton, was christened. 

The great stretch of water seen from the Terrace, 
with the old Palace of Lambeth across the way, held 
for him a never failing charm. In brief, he enjoyed 
every moment he spent in the House, and when he 
left he carried away recollections of a lifetime's 

H. H. was a very regular attendant at the debates 
and could be relied on to be in his place when wanted 
for a snap division a condition that requires more 
self-sacrifice than is usually credited to members. 

There was one summer when the whips of both 
parties were on the alert to prevent any accidents 
happening, and on one occasion men were stationed 
outside the church where Sir Charles Cayzer's daughter 
was being married to Captain Madden now Admiral 
Madden to catch the members as they came out of 
church and send them back post haste to the Commons. 

Mr Birrell's plaintive voice found an echo in the 
breast of many honourable Members when he spoke 
to his Bath audience : 

" I may inadvertently have gone home for dinner 
occasionally ; but, gentlemen, when you have to 
choose between an angry whip and an angry wife ? " 

During his parliamentary career H. H. made several 
attempts to get the Whips to give members credit for 
attendance to their duties when paired, but he could 
never convince them that a pair is as effective as a 

A pair does not produce the impressive effect on 


the Opposition of the member voting. The striking- 
out of equal values from opposed quantities may be 
convenient in arithmetical or algebraic calculations ; 
but the zealous Whip loves to march his entire force 
on to the ground ; and is sometimes inexorable. 

Sir Richard Webster afterwards Lord Alverstone 
used to tell a story of a pair having been effected 
by the Whips on a critical occasion. For conscience' 
sake after the division Whip No. i said to Whip 
No. 2 : 

" I think I ought in justice to explain that my 
Member broke his leg this afternoon and so could not 

" Infamous," said No. 2. " I will forgive you, 
but only because my man whom I paired with your 
man is dead." 

A description of life in the House of Commons 
written by H. H. may be included here : 

" The House of Commons is at once the easiest 
and most difficult assembly in the world to understand 
and in which to transact business. 

" The ambitious young member, consumed with 
burning zeal to distinguish himself, will probably 
commit a dozen breaches of order within the first 
month. He will walk to his seat while a member two 
benches above him is speaking, and interpose his 
presence between the orator and the Speaker. This 
is a gross breach of order, and the older members will 
shout indignantly their disapproval, and call ' order,' 
' order.' He will ask his question from one of the 
seats on the cross benches, technically ' outside the 
bar.' This is another gross breach of order at which 
his fellow-members will shout disapproval ; and after 
the bewildered man is at last made to understand, 
he comes in, and a friendly M.P. resigns a temporary 


place from which he may address the House. He will 
keep his hat on when standing at the bar, though 
the rule is that he can only wear his hat when seated 
in the Chamber. He will read a newspaper in the 
House. This is as in the courts of law another 
gross breach of order, and brings down on him the 
censure of the Speaker. He will in his first speech 
insist on addressing the M.P.'s and say ' Gentlemen/ 
in place of ignoring his fellow-members, and addressing 
his remarks to Mr Speaker, or simply saying ' Sir.' 
He will mention the previous speaker's name instead 
of the Member's constituency. He will greatly offend 
his fellow-members in his burning desire to carry his 
resolution by lecturing them, and reminding them of 
their promises to their constituents at the general 
election. He will be called to order for not strictly con- 
fining himself to the subject ; for instance, in speaking 
on the Navy estimates, he will give a general survey of 
its deficiencies when the question is the pay of the men ; 
or he will speak on the Post Office vote when the 
Telegraph service is under discussion ; or on mis- 
management in the War Office when the equipment 
of volunteers is being discussed. 

' The rules for framing questions are very strict. 
They must not involve (i) argument, (2) opinion, 
(3) inference, (4) imputation, (5) irony, or (6) hypo- 
thetical cases. 

" Answers to awkward questions are cleverly pre- 
pared by the expert officials, and the oldest Parlia- 
mentary hand often finds it impossible to get satis- 
faction. A Minister has been known to have prepared 
for him three different replies on a question of fact. 

' The common way of showing resentment to the 
Minister who gives an unsatisfactory or sharp answer 
to a question is for the aggrieved member to rise at 
once and make a formal speech. ' Mr Speaker, in 
consequence of the unsatisfactory answer, I beg to 
give notice that in the estimates I will call attention 


to the matter and move that the salary of the Secretary 
of State for War be reduced by 100.' 

" One of the most eloquent yet least trustworthy 
of our politicians made a series of charges against 
a dull but straightforward Front Bench leader. The 
attack was skilfully arranged, under four heads, 
and left a very unpleasant feeling in the public mind. 
The old politician rose, and roughly but clearly 
struggled through and satisfactorily replied to three 
of the charges. Then he became confused. He 
looked over and over again through his papers, and 
turned them upside down. In desperation he turned 
to his audience and said : ' Now, in regard to the 
fourth charge, I know there is an answer to it, and 
a complete answer to it. I ask the House of Commons 
to believe me, although I cannot find the answer now/ 
The very sincerity of the speaker evoked the sympathy 
and goodwill of hon. Members, and they cheered 
and cheered again, to the utter discomfiture of the 
glib but unscrupulous opponent. It is not merely 
the words, but the stored-up reputation of an orator 
that tell. As Addison said, apologizing for his limited 
conversational powers : ' I have but ninepence in 
ready money, but I can draw for a thousand pounds.' 

" The House of Commons is the fairest tribunal 
in the world and the quickest at measuring a man's 
capacity. A good story is told of its acumen. The 
successor of the great Sir Robert Peel, as member for 
Tamworth, came into the House radiant with the 
halo and glow of the great man who preceded him. 
The House immediately discovered wherein lay his 
exceptional abilities, and they put him on the wine 
and cigar committee. 

" A speech that smells of the oil-lamp is quickly 
detected and even in some degree resented. The 
immemorial distrust of forensic ability still character- 
izes the House. Brougham tells us how a brilliant 
new member, got up as a squire, impressed the assembly 


until he dropped the fatal phrase ' our circuit/ when 
he was instantly howled down as an impostor. 

" The House is impatient of bores, and the process 
of calling ' divide, divide, 'vide, 'vide ! ' and ' order, 
order ! ' soon extinguishes the most formidable bore. 
The old members of the House of Commons hastily 
arrange with each other to put down a bore by a 
concentric crossfire, one side calling ' divide, divide ! ' 
and the other ' order, order, question, question ! ' 
The effect is striking and conclusive." 

On one occasion, an interminable bore was annoy- 
ing the House and preventing business. H. H. moved 
" that the honourable gentleman be no longer heard." 
The Speaker rose with great dignity and declined to 
put his motion, but he added these significant words : 
" I must, however, warn the hon. Member that he is 
trifling with the time of the House, and if he persists 
it will be necessary to take some decisive action." 
The Speaker told H. H. afterwards that only in the 
case of an attack on the ambassador of a foreign Power 
would such a motion as he proposed be permitted. 
On the same occasion he admitted that one can 
use very strong language if properly selected in the 

The man who comes into the House of Commons 
without any fixed views, but who is determined to 
distinguish himself by taking part in every debate, 
often ruins his reputation in the first few months, 
and is never again listened to. 

H. H. knew a member who made his maiden speech 
within an hour of entering the House. 

On the other hand, during the first seventeen 
years H. H. was in Parliament, Mr W. W. Beach 
the father of the House of Commons never once 


spoke, yet his views and opinions privately expressed 
carried considerable weight. 

An amusing incident happened to H. H. one day. 
He was hurrying through the Lobby when he was 
stopped by one of the Junior Whips, Lord Balcarres, 
who asked him to oblige him by putting a blocking 
motion. H. H. read the paper and exclaimed : 

" Well, this beats everything ! you are asking me 
to block my own amendment ! ' 

Lord Balcarres had merely been given the slip of 
paper by a member of the Government and asked to 
find a private member to put the motion. Un- 
fortunately, the first person he met had been H. H. 
When Lord Balcarres realized what he had done he 
could not help laughing, and it ever afterwards re- 
mained an excellent jest between them. 

Not the least notable of H. H.'s contemporaries 
was Henry Labouchere, the famous editor and pro- 
prietor of "Truth." Most stories of Labouchere have 
achieved a world- wide reputation, but H. H. never 
forgot one night when Labouchere kept every one 
enthralled with his reminiscences. Labouchere was 
popularly supposed to be a hard man a reputation 
that was perhaps one secret of his success. He re- 
lated an experience he had had in Russia when playing 
cards with some Russian friends. An officer present 
lost a considerable sum of money to Labouchere, 
and he called on him the next morning in a great 
state of emotion to explain that he was absolutely 
at the end of his resources and could not possibly 
pay. Would Labouchere take pity on a young officer 
whose whole career was threatened with ruin and let 
him off the debt ? Labouchere replied politely that 
he would do nothing of the sort. In vain the 


young officer entreated and implored. Labouchere 
was adamant, and his visitor left vowing he was a 
ruined man. 

A few hours later a weeping woman, accompanied 
by two sobbing children, was shown in. The young 
wife threw herself on her knees and begged Labouchere 
to forgive her husband's debt, as he had not got the 
money and threatened to commit suicide she would 
be left a widow, her children fatherless. Labouchere 
remained unmoved, and explained he could under no 
circumstances overlook the debt. Early the next 
morning the Russian officer, looking wild and haggard, 
strode into Labouchere's office. " I am a dead 
man," he said, " and my blood is on your head. I 
have not the money to pay you and I cannot face 
the disgrace." He pulled a loaded pistol from his 
pocket and held it at his head. Still Labouchere 
made no move. The Russian then said, " I shall 
count ten slowly and if you do not alter your decision, 
you will be to all intents a murderer. One two three 
four five six." At " six " Labouchere produced 
a cigar and lighted it. " Seven eight nine ten." 
At the word " ten " the Russian plunged his left hand 
into his coat and dashed down a pocketbook with 
bank notes for the full amount due. ' Ten thousand 
curses on you, cold-blooded Englishman," he shouted, 
as he flung himself from the room. 

" I knew he was lying from the first," explained 
Labouchere blandly. 

H. H., like many another onlooker, saw much of 
the game. The courtesies of the House never lost 
their interest for him. When the word is passed 
that a new Member has risen for his maiden speech, 
the members will come trooping in to give him an 


opportunity of proving his worth. Extraordinary 
patience will be shown to an old and respected member 
evidently suffering from old age and its attendant 
verbosity, or a friendly sympathetic " hear, hear " 
will often encourage some unfortunate speaker who 
has broken down from nervousness. 

There was once a luckless member who got as far 
as a dramatic " There is one thing England will never 
forget," and here his memory failed him. " There is 
one thing, Mr Speaker, England will never forget ' 

The House waited in vain, but after a few seconds' 
deep pondering the Member abruptly sat down. 
Later on in the Lobby some sympathizers crowded 
round him. 

" By the way, what was it that England will never 
forget ? " they asked. 

"I'm d d if I know ! " he answered. 

H. H. was often asked which of the members in 
his opinion enjoyed the greatest amount of personal 
popularity in the House. He thought this honour 
undoubtedly belonged to Mr Lewis Harcourt, and as 
a proof of this he would cite the occasion when Mr 
Harcourt entered the House for the first time after 
his marriage. The entire House, Unionists, Liberals, 
Irish, and Labour, rose to cheer him as they had not 
cheered for many a long day. 

For many years Rotherhithe sent to Parliament 
Mr Gumming Macdona as their representative. His 
correct designation in the House was The Honourable 
Learned, Gallant, and Reverend Member for Rother- 
hithe, having been at different times in his career 
a clergyman, a barrister, and a soldier. He was one 
of the old Tory party who fell in the debacle of 1906. 
His election posters were headed " I will follow 


Balfour," a prognostication that proved unfortunately 
only too true. Like many others his defeat was a 
great blow to him, and, although he fell in good 
company, he did not long survive a bitter disappoint- 
ment coming late in life. With his disappearance 
the House lost a genial personality, popular on both 
sides. Some amusing verses were written by Mr 
Harrison Hill which appeared under the title : 


" In the House of Commons dining-room four men were dining well 
(With intervals for exercise at each Division bell), 
And Henniker Heaton was the host, a genial host was he, 
And Harrison Hill the humorist was Heaton 's vis-a-vis. 
That's two H. H.'s opposite (I speak in fides bona) 
And Frankfort Moore the novelist sat opposite Macdona, 
The Honourable, Reverend, Learned, Gallant, man of larks, 
Who sits so blithe for Rotherhithe, when he ought to sit for Barks. 
Two M's, two H's opposite, and two of them M.P. 
And two of them were visitors, and two were vis-a-vis. 
We talked Imperial Postage, and G.G. Clubs, 1 and dogs, 
Of Marriage Acts, and derelicts that float about in fogs. 
We talked of many subjects, and in every kind of tone, 
But we left the Army Estimates religiously alone, 
Except for the Division bell, when each man quenched his drouth, 
And toddled off and voted with an entree in his mouth. 
But Heaton told Macdona he thought it most unfair 
That though there was a pair of them they couldn't even pair. 
And every time the waiter would fresh delicacies bring 
That wretched old Division bell would give another ring. 
Then we went into the smoke-room for a coffee and cigar 
Which the waiter went and brought us from the House of Commons bar, 
Till Heaton and Macdona, when the stars began to peep, 
Said they'd have a dose of Estimates, which meant a dose of sleep. 
Then a novelist and humorist stole through the Commons door, 
For they heard a Member speaking and two other Members snore ; 
But Heaton and Macdona were wide awake you'll guess, 
When the House adjourned at midnight for the Whitsuntide recess." 

1 Gay Golfers' Club, of which Mr Macdona was President. 


In all H. H.'s measures for promoting Imperial 
Penny Postage, he received warm support from 
Lord Charles Beresford, who foresaw the imperative 
necessity of drawing the Colonies closer to the Mother 
Country, at a time when hardly anyone could be 
found to take the matter seriously. In Lord Charles 
Beresford's memoirs he writes : 

" At Christmas, 1898, Mr Henniker Heaton's 
indomitable perseverance had resulted in the estab- 
lishment of Penny Postage in every part of the British 
Empire except Australia and New Zealand. Lord 
Randolph Churchill and myself were hearty supporters 
of Henniker Heaton, who gave to each of us a golden 
penny in commemoration of the event." 

An interesting letter from Lord Charles Beresford, 
written on board H.M.S. " Bulwark," at Lagos Bay, in 
1906, may here be included : 


Thank you for your most interesting letter of 
the 7th. You richly deserve all the grateful appre- 
ciation which your countrymen show you on every 
possible occasion. Well done, indeed well done. You 
are one of the forlorn hopes of the Conservative Party, 
and all your friends will be delighted that you have 
been again returned to Parliament, not only for your 
own sake, but for the sake of the country, and those 
splendid and brilliant reforms you have unvaryingly 
pushed for and won for the Line of Communication 
by Post. 

I told Balfour, before I left, that I thought the 
Liberal Party would come in far greater numbers 
than was anticipated, and that they would be in far 
longer than was anticipated, but I never imagined 
the slump would be so terrific. 


There are many reasons and causes for the tre- 
mendous Liberal majority. 

1. The iniquitous and dishonourable Jameson 

2. The mismanaged South African War. 

3. The large consensus of opinion that the War was 
in the interests of the Jews, and also the chaotic state 
of the Army. 

4. The dread of the working classes of anything 
in the way of Protection. 

5. Mr Chamberlain's Policy of having joined to- 
gether, on one platform, Skilled and Unskilled Labour 
for the first time since their enfranchisement. 

6. The inability of a large number of gentlemen 
to work on the old lines of Patriotism, instead of for 
Personal motives. 

7. The last Government having held on to Office 
too long. It was quite apparent that the country 
wished for a change, and there were other minor 
matters which helped to make the great smash. 

For my own part, I do not think that the Gentlemen 
will ever again be in the predominant position of 
power in the Government of our great Empire. Old 
ideas, issues, and Party lines will disappear. The 
leisured classes will no longer supply men to work 
unselfishly from solely patriotic motives. Politics 
will become a Profession, and Politicians will be paid. 
The demarcation will be between the lines of Capital 
and Labour as time goes on. Working men will be 
returned in larger numbers at each election. This is 
my forecast. Personally, I have no great fear for the 

I have absolute belief in the common sense, 
patriotism, and right feeling of the people ; and if 
we read history, we shall see that the people were 
always right in the end. 

Bannerman is the most powerful Minister we have 
had, and I am confident that, with the great majority 


the Liberals have had, his Government will be 

From a Party and Strategical point of view, I 
believe it madness to have adopted the Fiscal Reform 
programme, after the unquestionable reverse it had 
in the hands of the people at the last Election. I 
never believed myself in Protection, and think Mr 
Chamberlain in his saner moments was more correct 
in his diagnosis than he is now, when he remarked 
that " Protection, if ever brought in, would make 
the rich richer, and the poor poorer." 

Yours very sincerely, 


Once and once only during his parliamentary 
career H. H. crossed swords with the War Office, 
and succeeded in hacking his way through the barri- 
cades of red-tape until he reached head-quarters, 
where the enemy capitulated. The facts were these. 
A lady wrote to H. H. to tell him that her son at Harrow 
had been ploughed for the Army, and asking him to 
use his influence on his behalf. The boy in question 
was captain of the cricket eleven at Harrow and 
devoted to all sport, a born leader and one of the 
most popular boys in the school. The sole fact that 
R. was captain of the Harrow eleven was sufficient 
for H. H. as undoubtedly it would have been for 
the Duke of Wellington ! 

The correspondence between H. H. and the War 
Office, were it permissible to publish it, would make 
good reading. There could only be one end to such 
a combat and R. is now a major in the Hussars. 
In the course of championing the claims of his young 
friend, H. H. had an interview with a very important 
bigwig : 

" Look here, Henniker Heaton," said General 


Sir W , " examinations are all nonsense. When 
I joined the Army forty years ago the test they set us 
was to say the Lord's Prayer and to write our own 
name and by the Lord Harry I was plucked the first 
time ! " 

H. H. was the first to introduce tea on the Terrace, 
which became almost at once a popular feature of 
London social life. The photographs taken by the 
late Sir Benjamin Stone made a permanent record 
of some of the most interesting of these gatherings. 
On the Terrace of the House H. H. had the pleasure 
of introducing his great friend, the late Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy, to Sir Edward Carson, where they had 
a deeply interesting discussion on the affairs of Ireland. 
Sir Edward Carson ended the interview by saying if 
all Irishmen were like Sir Charles he would gladly 
consent to Home Rule for Ireland. 

" And ut's Carrson that has the soft spache wid 
him," commented an Irish Member hearing the story. 

The following letter was written by Sir Charles, 
from Nice : 


I am reading with considerable enjoyment the 
volume of political gossip you sent me. I entered 
parliament at the same date as Sir William Eraser 
and am familiar with the men and events he deals 
with. The book would be a great deal better if it 
were written in strictly chronological order, and about 
half the size, excluding all anecdotes which are not 
new, or are not pointed. 

I never waited the meeting of parliament with 
so much anxiety. The G.O.M. has a very difficult 
task, but his safety lies in courage. If he prepares a 
thoroughly satisfactory measure he will content 
Ireland, even if it should be lost for a time in the Lords, 


but if it should be a paltry scheme his career will end 
in a London fog. . . . 

Apropos of fogs, I hope Mrs Heaton is facing the 
winter courageously. We have had very satisfactory 
weather since you have been here with the interval 
of a day or two. In France we are in some danger 
of a general overturn. The leading men of the republic 
who have held the government for twenty years are 
all suspected of complicity with corruption and 
of plundering the savings of the industrious classes 
invested in the Panama Canal. 

If you send me a copy of Gladstone's bill as early 
as you can, it will be very welcome. 

I notice that Ritchie met the fate you predicted, 
but it is doubtful policy in Lord Salisbury to allow 
his son to spoil the career of one of his colleagues. 

My daughters join in kindest remembrances to 
Mrs Heaton. 

Very faithfully yours, 


During the twenty-six years H. H. sat in Parlia- 
ment he saw many changes, and very few of the 
original members of his first Parliament were left 
by the time he retired. 

Some interesting letters from old Parliamentary 
colleagues may here be included. Lord Curzon wrote, 
from Viceregal Lodge, Simla, on May gth, 1901 : 


I was much gratified at receiving your letter, 
and at learning that I am not quite forgotten at home. 
I follow these struggles of Sassoon and yourself with 
much interest. In these contests the ultimate result 
is quite certain. But it often takes a long time. I 
am glad to notice that in the midst of Parliamentary 
labours you find time to lend an ear to the whispers 
of society talk, and to repeat them for my edification 


across the seas. Here we are so respectable that we 
have to depend upon England for our gossip. 

Yours very truly, 


In 1906, Mr James Bryce, afterwards Lord Bryce, 
on being appointed British Ambassador to the United 
States, wrote : 


Thank you heartily for the kind words you 
have sent me, nothing could have given me more 
pleasure than your assurance that I have none but 
well wishers on your side of the House in the responsible 
task I am undertaking. It is a great wrench to leave 
the House of Commons after 27 years, but the sense 
of parting is softened and sweetened by the recollection 
of all the kindness one has met with there. 

If I can be an instrument in doing anything to 
help you in the great enterprise of cheapening Trans- 
atlantic post, it will be done gladly. 

Believe me, 

Very truly yours, 


Sir William Har court sent the following letter, 
from Malwood, Lyndhurst, on July 6th, 1899 : 


Your kind and generous letter has given me 
sincere pleasure. It has always been my first ambition, 
in whatever situation I found myself, to stand well 
with the whole House of Commons and to do what 
seemed to me best for the interests of that great 
Assembly, which is the true representation of a great 
people. If I have been able to earn the good will 
of my opponents as well as my friends I shall have 
succeeded beyond my hopes, and such a result is a 


high testimony to the noble tone of public life which 
I rejoice to know governs all our Party conflicts. 
I have seen with great pleasure the signal success 
of your enlightened and beneficent efforts in Postal 
Reform, in which you have made a name which will 
not be forgotten. If I have contributed to support 
you in any slight degree I shall be proud to pursue 
your triumph and partake the gale. 

Yours very truly, 


The time came at last when H. H. also left the 
House of Commons, where he had spent so many 
happy years. Of the twenty-six years in which he 
represented Canterbury, during twenty-one he was 
unopposed. He fought altogether three elections, 
and retired in 1910, when a farewell banquet was 
given in his honour. 

The words of the historian Justin M'Carthy may 
fitly bring to an end this chapter in the life of H. H. : 


I have heard, of course, as everybody has, 
the announcement that with the close of this Parliament 
you have made up your mind to retire from your 
public or at all events from your Parliamentary life. 
The news came with quite a shock of surprise to me, 
for I had never regarded you as one whose career 
of active work must be drawing to its close. Few 
men living anywhere in the world can have rendered 
more beneficent, or indeed so many beneficent public 
services as you have rendered not merely to your 
own people but to all the peoples within the range and 
reach, or striving to come within the range and reach 
of civilization. I cannot think but that you will find 
a certain sense of vacuity when you have withdrawn 
from that House of Commons in which you found so 



congenial, so characteristic, and so nobly active a 
career, and where you had friendship, sympathy, 
gratitude and encouragement from all your fellow- 
members, of whom I had the honour and the pleasure 
of being one during many years. Still I must say, 
of course, that, if you feel you are taking the right 
decision, you are the man whose decision ought to 
settle the question in the minds of all who know you 
as I do. My heart is filled with gratitude to you for 
most valuable services rendered to me at a time when 
broken health and other troubles made the friendship 
and the support of men like you a very shelter against 
the storm. Forgive me, therefore, if I do not write 
more cheerfully on this coming event in your life of 
public and private benefaction. 

Pray forgive me for addressing you through the 
mechanism of the typewriting machine. The truth 
is that for several years past my sight has been so 
weak that I have been unable to use the pen for any- 
thing much beyond a mere signature. 

Ever your true friend, 


2 " 





O call Canterbury a Conservative stronghold 
is to do it no more than justice. Whether 
or not, after every General Election, Kent 
can claim the title of " Solid Kent," it 
will invariably be found that Canterbury has done 
its part in returning a Tory representative to West- 
minster. The preponderance of Toryism in the 
borough was best illustrated in 1910 when, with an 
equally split Conservative vote, the Liberal candidate 
was in a minority of 500. 

H. H. was justly proud of his long connection with 
Canterbury. The presentation of the Freedom of 
the City in 1899 was an honour he deeply appreciated. 
The beautiful Casket containing the document was 
made from Cathedral Oak, ornamented with emblems 
of the various countries which had joined in Imperial 
Penny Postage. The presentation was made by the 
Mayor, Sir George Collard, and the Archbishop of 
Canterbury (Archbishop Temple) gave the congratu- 
latory address. 

On September lyth, 1904, Mr Joseph Chamberlain 
wrote to H. H. as follows : 


I have heard with great pleasure that you have 
again been requested by the Unionist Committee to 



represent Canterbury in the next Parliament, and I 
am delighted that you should find yourself able 
once more to bear the burden and to render further 
service to the country and the Unionist cause. 

You can look back with satisfaction to your past 
efforts. It has been given to few men to promote 
reforms independently and to see them adopted in 
their own lifetime with universal approval. I take 
special pleasure in the certainty of your return, as I 
know how warmly you appreciate the importance of 
drawing the different parts of the Empire more closely 
together. You have a wide knowledge of colonial 
conditions, and your support to the policy I have 
endeavoared to recommend to my countrymen will 
be of great value. 

With all good wishes, 
Believe me, 

Yours very truly, 


In the early days the Conservative party in Canter- 
bury was led by Captain Thomas Lambert, a true 
Tory of the old school. His charming hospitality and 
the wonderful roses from his gardens made a fragrant 
memory not soon forgotton. His death was mourned 
by all the county. 

Dean Wace, writing to H. H., said, "You must 
have felt deeply the death of our venerable friend 
Captain Lambert. He was a true English gentleman." 

Other loyal friends of those old days were Edward 
Plummer, Sir George Collard, Walter Furley, and 
lastly Dr Frank Wacher, of whom it might truly be 
written : 

" Of soul sincere 

In action faithful, and in honour clear, 
Who broke no promise, served no private end." 


H. H. delighted in all things Kentish. " My 
Cathedral," " My Archbishop," were frequently on 
his lips, and he thoroughly enjoyed the run down to 
Canterbury through Kentish hop-gardens and Kentish 
orchards ; and not least he loved the kindly faces of 
the Kentish folk with their slow, old-fashioned speech. 

In springtime the woods around Canterbury are 
a very heaven of green and gold. On Primrose Day 
a great hamper of yellow primroses was always sent 
to " Our Member " by two old ladies, Primrose 
Dames, and the whole house in Eaton Square would 
be a mass of yellow blooms from Canterbury. 

The famous Canterbury Cricket Week was a 
gathering H. H. never failed to attend. The balls, 
the theatricals, the luncheons and tea-parties upon 
the cricket field changed the quiet Cathedral city 
into the gayest of gay scenes. 

H. H., himself a lover of cricket, could never resist 
the wistful faces of the little urchins who hung around 
the gate, trying to catch glimpses of their flannelled 
heroes. Many a time he would send the whole ragged 
little band rejoicing through the turnpike. 

One wonders if any of these were among the body- 
guard that dogged H. H.'s every footstep at election 
time, shouting in husky little voices the popular 
election song which went to the tune of ' ' Tramp, 
tramp, tramp, the boys are marching." 

" Vote, vote, vote, for Mister 'Eaton, 
Niver mind a word er wot they si, 
For 'Eaton is the man 
And 'e does the best 'e can, etc. etc." 

A compliment distinctly qualified, one might consider. 

H. H. took a great interest in King's School, 

Canterbury, and was present whenever possible to 


give away the prizes. It was in mid-ocean in 1907 
that he discovered on board ship an Old Boy in Mr 
Kennerly Rumford, who, with his wife, Clara Butt, 
was on his way to tour Australia, and together they 
dispatched a marconigram to King's School on the 
occasion of some school festivity. 

Like all pocket boroughs, Canterbury was not 
entirely free from the charges of bribery and cor- 
ruption. There are alive to this day old men who can 
recall the happy times when the tables in the Committee 
Rooms were spread with golden sovereigns, while 
the sitting Member gazed tactfully out of the window 
with a pleasant word over his shoulder, " Help your- 
selves, Gentlemen, help yourselves." The rival 
candidate wore an overcoat with immense pockets, 
and it was an understood thing that the free and inde- 
pendent electors who walked on either side of him 
were at liberty to thrust their hands into the gaping 
pockets in search of the gold with which they were 

Such halcyon days cannot, however, last for ever, 
and there came an evil hour when the then Member 
was unseated on petition. As a result of the inquiries, 
bribery was found to be so widespread that for a 
period of seven years the ecclesiastical capital of the 
Empire was disfranchised. 

This was the situation at Canterbury when, the 
seven years being at an end, H. H. was elected as 
Conservative Member. Needless to say, his party 
was anxious to avoid any suspicion of bribery, and 
during the weeks preceding the election Lady H. H. 
was asked not to allow her servants to buy even half 
a yard of ribbon in the town. 

If, in those days, Canterbury was out of favour 


in the political world, it was unfortunately still more 
out of favour in Royal circles. Local tradition as- 
cribed this feeling to an incident that occurred when 
Queen Victoria visited Canterbury with the late 
King Edward as a baby. One enthusiastic woman 
stepped forward and planted a kiss on the royal brow 
of the slumbering infant with a resounding " Bless his 
little heart." Her Majesty was deeply offended and for 
many years never again set foot in the city. Great 
therefore were the rejoicings when in 1897 the Prince 
and Princess of Wales visited Canterbury and the 
loyal citizens once again basked in the smiles of 

H. H. frequently took his friends down to Canter- 
bury, knowing how much pleasure and interest they 
would find in the beautiful old city. Sir Joseph Ward, 
the late Premier of New Zealand, was among the 
friends who visited the town, accompanied by the 
Member. The occasion was the presentation of a 
flag from the children of Canterbury, New Zealand, 
to the children of Canterbury, Kent. It was a happy 
idea, resulting in an exchange of letters between the 
two places so widely separated, forging one more link 
between the mother country and her Colonies. 

Another welcome visitor was Sir George Reid, 
the High Commissioner for Australia. H. H.'s friend- 
ship with Sir George dated back to the days of early 
manhood, and knew no diminution throughout the 
long strenuous years they were both destined to enjoy. 
On arrival at Canterbury, there was some competition 
among the various cab-drivers for the privilege of 
conveying the Member and his distinguished guest 
to the hotel. This drew forth a reminiscence from 
Sir George of a similar experience in Australia, when 


he seemed in danger of being torn in pieces by cab- 
drivers all eager for his patronage. Sir George solved 
the difficulty by announcing that he had always been 
in favour of large families, and he would take the cab- 
driver who had the most children. Spirited " bidding " 
then began, but was quickly ended by a gruff, 
' You come along er me, sir, I've got seventeen 
children." As Sir George was driven off in triumph, 
even the ranks of Tuscany could scarce forbear to 

Sir George's repartees when on the election platform 
are quoted all over the world. His slow gentle manner 
of dealing with hecklers gives an added piquancy 
to the situation. One evening when he had been 
enduring with great good humour continuous interrup- 
tions, a man rose from the back and shouted : 
' You are double-faced." 

Sir George Reid considered the man reflectively : 

" It is easy to see that gentleman has not two faces, 
or he would not have come with the one he has to- 

One May morning H. H. persuaded his friend Mr 
John Wanamaker, the late Postmaster-General of 
America, to leave London's noise and traffic, and 
spend a few hours in seeing Canterbury and the Kentish 
orchards in full bloom. 

In the train on the way down, Mr Wanamaker 
learnt from the papers that it was H. H.'s birthday, 
May 1 8th, and he at once presented him with his 
watch as a memento. ' When you lose that I will 
give you another," he said. But the promise had 
never to be redeemed, for the watch bore a charmed 
life. It was dropped, and lost and trodden on, and 
stolen, by a steward on board ship, who subsequently 


jumped over board, and endured every vicissitude of 
fortune that can befall a watch, and still it kept its 
excellent undeviating accuracy and became as much 
a part of H. H.'s apparel as his coat itself ; nor would 
he have changed it for any other watch in the world. 

Mr Wanamaker and H. H. spent a delightful day 
at Canterbury, meeting old friends on one side, and 
making new ones on the other. Just near the 
Cathedral H. H. stopped to introduce to Mr Wanamaker 
a young man who was striding along. Mr Wanamaker, 
as is well known, has a great gift of engaging every 
one he meets in interesting talk the first moment of 
acquaintance. The young man found himself de- 
scribing Canterbury and its industries to a most 
sympathetic listener. The talk turned on the large 
breweries in the city. Mr Wanamaker, who is a great 
temperance advocate, asked his companion : 

" Tell me, do you drink ? ' 

" No, I am a teetotaller," replied the young man. 

" Shake," said Mr Wanamaker, suiting the action 
to the words. 

" And does your father drink ? ' 

" No, he is also a teetotaller." 

Again the hand of fellowship was extended. 

" And what is your father's profession ? " 

" Archbishop of Canterbury," replied young Mr 
Temple modestly. 

The hearty infectious laugh that rang out from 
Mr Wanamaker made the passers-by turn round. 
Linking his arm through H. H.'s, Mr Wanamaker 
said : 

' Why, this is enough to get you unseated why 
didn't you tell me your friend was the son of your 
Archbishop ? ' 


Mr Wanamaker's keen sense of humour, combined 
as it is with the truest love for humanity, has made 
him friends from one end of the hemisphere to the 
other. At luncheon subsequently with the Archbishop 
a seal was set upon a day full of happy associations. 

There is an interesting letter from Archbishop 
Benson, dated i5th February 1892, in reply to a note 
from H. H. asking his opinion as to the propriety of 
speaking in Newcastle on a Sunday in connection 
with postal matters : 


Thank you much for your kind confidence. 
I think it would create much adverse feeling if 
you lectured on Sunday on a subject so purely secular, 
although so serviceable. Many of those who would 
otherwise be your best and most amenable auditors 
would be scandalized. You could on a weekday 
evening command not only as large, but larger masses 
of thoughtful men, because you would add to them 
a highly respectable and thinking set who would 
certainly not come on Sunday. They would in fact 
be set against the plan itself, as hasty generalizations 
are wont to be made in such matters. Of other classes 
a very large number would be scandalized no doubt 

Believe me, 

Yours very faithfully, 


" The Penny Post is one of the ordinances of man 
that we have to submit to for the Lord's sake," 
Archbishop Benson is reported to have said at another 

If H. H. was free for many years from the anxiety 
of fighting elections, he certainly did his part nobly 


in opening bazaars, laying foundation-stones, attending 
flower-shows, and all the multitudinous duties that fall 
to the lot of a Member. His love for the old city was 
reciprocated in many loyal hearts. He had friends 
in every walk of life, and many were the people who 
could speak of kindnesses shown them during the 
twenty-six years in which he was their representative. 

H. H. was never too busy to answer their letters 
in person, to secure an opening for some son or 
daughter ; to assist the emigration of a family ; or 
do the thousand and one little acts of kindness that 
do so much to ease the burden of life. His cheery 
presence and hearty greeting were known and loved 
throughout the city. 

Among the pleasantest of H. H.'s associations with 
Kent must be recorded his Presidency of the Men of 
Kent and Kentish Men. The Association was formed 
in 1898, with Lord Harris as first President, and on 
his resignation in 1904 he was succeeded by H. H. 
Never had a President a more loyal body of supporters, 
and during his years of office the membership grew 
from hundreds to as many thousands. Branches 
were formed in all parts of the Empire, forming yet 
another link between the old country and her de- 

When the battle cruiser H.M.S. " Kent " was com- 
missioned, the Men of Kent and Kentish Men signalized 
their interest by presenting a magnificent shield to 
the ship. In response to an appeal from Captain 
D. A. Gamble, the Maids of Kent embroidered a silken 
ensign. ' They may depend upon us," said Captain 
Gamble, " to keep it flying and never haul it down 
in dishonour." Words literally fulfilled when, on 
December 8th, 1914, Captain J. D. Allen, flying the 


ensign, went into action, chased, engaged, and, 
single-handed, sank the German cruiser " Niirnberg " 
The ensign, which flew all the time, was torn to ribbons. 
The complimentary dinner given by the Association 
to the Kent Eleven in 1906 was a very brilliant function. 
H. H., apologizing for the unavoidable absence of the 
Right Honourable Alfred Lyttelton, " who was trying 
to bowl out or stump out or catch out our present 
Government," read the following letter : 


I am extremely sorry to say that in the existing 
state of things I cannot leave the House for the banquet 
to which you were so good as to invite me. Will 
you express my deep regret at my inability to attend. 
I can assure you that no one viewed the news of the 
Kent victory with more satisfaction than myself. 

For that victory was achieved by the qualities 
which I think make cricket worth playing, dash, 
enterprise, adventure, as well as resolution and tenacity. 
Long may such qualities flourish in Kent and elsewhere. 

Yours very truly, 


An original gift was made to H. H. when the Society 
presented him with a large solid silver envelope, 
bearing the Canadian penny stamp. 

On H. H.'s retirement from Parliament, the Men of 
Kent and Kentish Men gathered a brilliant company 
together to bid him farewell at a banquet at the 
Trocadero Restaurant. 

The chair was taken by the High Commissioner 
for New Zealand, Sir William Hall- Jones ; and among 
those present were the High Commissioner for Australia, 
Sir George Reid ; the High Commissioner for Canada, 
Lord Strathcona ; the High Commissioner for South 


Africa, Mr John Burns ; General Sir John French, 
Mr Marconi, Lord Blyth, Sir Edward Clarke, Sir John 
Cockburn, and the Postmaster-General, Mr Herbert 

Lord Strathcona in the course of his speech said 
that when he first went to Canada, seventy years before, 
letters from England to Canada cost from 45. to 8s. 

The Right Hon. Herbert Samuel, the Postmaster- 
General, in proposing the toast of " The British Empire 
and Imperial Communications," said that " that was 
an occasion of pleasure and of deep regret, since 
it signalized the retirement from active public life 
of their friend Mr Henniker Heaton. Postmasters- 
General came and went with sometimes bewildering 
rapidity, but they were accustomed to think that Mr 
Henniker Heaton went on for ever, and for his own 
part, he would believe Mr Heaton whether in Parlia- 
ment or out of it had given up active work as a postal 
reformer when he saw it and not before. He thought 
he could claim that for the Postmaster-General of 
the day to attend a banquet at which Mr Henniker 
Heaton was the chief guest, showed something in the 
nature of a forgiving spirit. They all knew that his 
favoured form of sport was the baiting of Postmasters- 
General. His was the task of sticking the bandillero 
into the quivering shoulders of the infuriated animal. 
(Laughter.) He it was who waved in front of its 
eyes the red cloak of penny-a-word cablegrams, and, 
when the infuriated beast charged, with graceful and 
sylph-like agility, slipped over the barrier. 

" It was a great public service which Mr Henniker 
Heaton had performed in continually keeping on the 
alert the individual, whoever he might be, who was 
at the head of the great Department of State over 


which he had the honour to preside. Mr Henniker 
Heaton had, however, rendered an even greater service 
in instilling into the public mind a divine discontent 
with things as they were, and ultimately his efforts 
had had some effect on the Treasury, a Second Chamber 
through which postal measures had to pass, a formidable 
and lethal Chamber. 

" The whole of the country irrespective of party 
was grateful to Mr Henniker Heaton for the long life 
which he had devoted to the cause of postal reform." 

Looking round the hall, H. H. felt himself not at a 
public dinner but among trusted friends. 

Each birthday, each postal victory, each hard- 
fought election brought a message or cablegram from 
the Men of Kent and Kentish Men to their President. 
The names most closely associated with H. H. were 
H. J. Hearn, James Bills, G. B. Bayley, J. T. Hearn, 
A. O. Callard, R. Pilcher, Newton Jacks, T. S. Whit- 
taker, W. H. Le May, E. Bennett, H. T. Wilkens, A. H. 
Shine, P. H. Holt, G, Clinch, R. Larking, E. M. Arnold, 
and Henry Thompson. 



"Was it right, I say, and consistent with thy duties to sport away thy 
evenings amidst the vanities of Chess ? " 

Letter from Cardinal Damianus to a Bishop, A.D. 1061. 

CHESS is the only game permitted in the 
House of Commons. Somewhere about 
1885 H. H. discovered a solitary and ancient 
chess board, in the smoking-room of the 
House, which tradition said had belonged to a former 
member for Deptford. H. H., who, like many others, 
found time hang heavy upon his hands, immediately 
seized upon the board and in a very short time a crowd 
of enthusiasts were gathered round. 

The crush of spectators became so great that the 
players proposed to start a five shilling subscription, 
and a Chess Committee was formed. Among the 
earlier players were Sir Charles Russell, Lord 
Randolph Churchill, Parnell, Sir George Newnes, 
Charles Bradlaugh, and others. 

Speaking many years later H.H. said : 

" Lord Randolph Churchill was a very impatient 
player ; he used to suffer so much in thinking out his 
moves. Bradlaugh was by far the most astute player, 
but Sir George Newnes, who was the greatest player 
in the House in those days, could beat him. Parnell 
was not a particularly strong player. He used to 
look on a good deal. But the man who would make 
the merriest comments, who would send ripples of 
laughter round the room, particularly when Parnell 



was playing, was the O'Gorman Mahon, the most 
notable character that ever figured in the House, and 
the last of the old Irish warriors and duellists." 

For several years H. H. was chairman of the Chess 
Committee and he was the moving spirit in organizing 

The most interesting tournaments were those 
played in 1897 between the House of Commons 
and the United States Houses of Parliament at 

The Speaker of the House of Commons wrote as 
follows : 


Thanks for your note about the Chess-Match. 
I hope the best side will win, and I hope, too, that the 
best men will be found on this side of the Atlantic. 

Believe me, 

Yours truly, 


The match was played by cable, a telegraph line 
running into each House. 

Sir Horace Plunkett, Mr Atherley Jones, Mr 
M'Kenna, Sir Charles Shaw, and Mr Parnell's brother 
were amongst those who played for the House 
of Commons. The late Mr Arthur Walter of the 
"Times" offered a magnificent trophy of Persian 
Chessmen, and paid the whole of the expenses. 

The match was fiercely fought and ended in a 
draw : two and a half games to each side. At one 
time the defeat of America seemed imminent and the 
chairman of the American side cabled ' ' We don't 
think this fair : we will play you poker." 

Throughout the game there was a pleasant flow 


of intercourse. One of the English team was un- 
avoidably detained, and a message was sent to his 
opponent asking for a few minutes' grace. ' Why, 
certainly, don't hustle him," came back over the wires 
and raised a smile. 

An inter-parliamentary match between England 
and Australia was arranged in 1911. The following 
letters are from the then First Lord of the Admiralty : 


I feel proud that you should have thought of 
me as a possible Captain for the British team in an 
inter-parliamentary chess match with Australia. I 
am sorry to say, however, that chess has been so far 
from my mind for the last six years, that I should be 
quite useless in the post. I have not played once 
myself since I have been in Office, and I know nothing 
of the players in the House of Commons. These are 
reasons, too strong to be overcome, against my accept- 
ing your very kind proposal. 

Yours sincerely, 



You have always justly been considered the 
most persuasive of men, and your achievements in 
Post Office reforms are evidence of the truth of this 
opinion. In the present case, however, I feel strongly 
that your blandishments ought not to prevail and 
must not. 

I am glad to be able to tell you that your son 
Arthur is being appointed First Lieutenant of the 
" Torch " on the Australian Station, an appointment 
which I understand to be acceptable both to him and 
to you. 

Yours sincerely, 



Mr Watson Rutherford, M.P., has very kindly sent 
the following reminiscence : 

" In the course of the few years which followed my 
entering the House of Commons in January, 1903, 
several matches were played against the joint teams 
of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, each of 
which was organized and largely carried out by H. H. 

" He was passionately fond of the game, and though 
he did not attain first place amongst its skilled devotees 
he was remarkable for the rapidity of his games, and 
the amount of good humoured enjoyment which he 
was able to get out of them, whether he won or lost. 

" H. H. also was principally responsible for the 
arrangements made in connection with two or three 
annual tournaments amongst the members of the 
House of Commons itself, chiefly in connection with 
the challenge cup which was given by Mr Bonar 
Law, which cup afterwards was won by that gentleman 
himself, and subsequently presented by him as a sort 
of trophy between the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge and the House of Commons, and is at 
present held by the Universities in consequence of 
their having won the last match. 

" Although H. H. was not in the first rank of chess 
players from the point of view of chess skill, yet 
his presence and services were of the greatest possible 
utility to the chess players in the House in consequence 
of his being a universal friend and favourite. His 
high powers of organization and the amount of per- 
suasiveness he brought to bear upon any project he 
had in hand were sufficient to carry it to a successful 
issue under almost all circumstances. 

" Although the chess playing group in the House 
of Commons has suffered very severe diminution as 
regards both number and talent, as will readily be 
seen from the list of names above mentioned, I believe 
that on the whole the playing standard to-day is 


almost as high as ever it was, but we are sorely lacking 
in that very element of organization of which we were 
deprived when H. H. quitted the House." 

The rapidity of H. H.'s game was a source of 
constant amusement, and the introduction of " Henni- 
ker Heat on Lightning-games " became popular. 

The method was to move so rapidly as to prevent 
the players having time to think out problems. To 
add to the excitement the Division Bell often rang in 
the midst of a contest and the best of players became 
so utterly disorganized that the results were fre- 
quently mirth-provoking. 

" It isn't chess at all it's skittles," a disgusted 
victim once exclaimed, and the name found favour 
among its devotees. 

Apart from chess in the House, H. H. was very 
keenly interested in the Imperial Chess Club which 
was started by Mrs Arthur Rawson. The first two 
Vice- Presidents were Lord Claud Hamilton and H. H., 
and the Club was opened by the latter in 1911. As 
its name suggests, the Club provides a centre where 
visitors from oversea-dominions may meet in the 
friendly atmosphere of the great chess republic. 

In going through H. H.'s papers a surprising number 
of telegrams were found written in the vernacular. 
His election to Canterbury was hailed by his chess- 
playing friends in the House " Noble move." 

When, in 1908, H. H. started his crusade for penny- 
a-word telegrams throughout the Empire Sir John 
Randies wrote : 


In chess an infinite number of moves and 
combinations are possible. The bold far-seeing player 


finds new combinations and is rewarded when he cries 
check followed by mate. 

You have done much and played a great pawn 
game in development of the International penny post, 
when you fairly cried " Check." Bring out all your 
pieces, you will need them, and may you see the time 
when telegrams a penny a word the wide world over 
will enable you in more senses than one to cry " Mate.'' 




WHEN the Duke of Wellington was asked 
his opinion of the English climate he is 
reported to have said : " For six months 
in the year the English climate is the best 
in the world, and for the other six I'm damned if I 
know a better." 

This was a very favourite quotation of H. H.'s, 
and he could speak with some authority, having tried 
the climate of most countries in the world. Although 
he thought so highly of the health-giving properties 
of the English air, the fact remains that he never 
willingly spent a winter in England if he could possibly 
be anywhere else. His friends accused him of " Spend- 
ing his week-ends in Japan " a not unfair comment 
on his meteor-like journeys across the world. 

H. H. and Lady Heaton, who shared a devoted love 
of the sea, spent a good deal of time on the Sussex coast. 
The gorse country round Bexhill and the picturesque 
old Sussex villages added greatly to the affection they 
had for the neighbourhood. The crystal-clear air and 
the invigorating breezes would send H. H. back to 
work with renewed life. 

Rest, as other people understand the word, was 
unknown to him. The only relaxation he found was 
in travelling about at full speed, meeting fresh people 



and seeing fresh countries. London was of course 
his head-quarters, and he had towards London very 
much the same feeling as Dr Johnson : ' The 
happiness of London is not to be conceived but by 
those who have been in it. London is nothing to 
some people, but to a man whose pleasure is intellectual 
London is the place." 

H. H. also shared Dr Johnson's antipathy to 
Scotland. This was perhaps the more extraordinary, 
in that it was the only country in the world that 
anyone ever heard him mention without some warm 
words of appreciation. His prejudice was founded 
on his one and only visit to Scotland. He arrived 
at Edinburgh early one Sunday morning to find the 
rain descending in torrents and a hurricane blowing. 
There were no cabs at the station and there appeared 
to be no means of reaching his hotel. The only other 
passenger was Lord Aberdeen, and together they waited 
for some chance conveyance. At length, a rattle of 
wheels was heard and a milk-cart came into sight. 
The obliging milkman allowed them to stand up in his 
cart, and drove them off in triumph along Princes 
Street ! It was in vain that the younger members 
of H. H.'s family lauded the glories of the Highlands : 
to him Scotland always remained a rain-sodden morass 
where the inhabitants invariably drove about in 

Ireland, on the other hand, was the country of his 
heart. Irish songs, Irish poetry, soft Irish voices, 
all made an irresistible appeal to him. For many 
years he and Lady Heaton spent every Whitsuntide 
in Ireland, and counted it among their happiest 
memories. There was something akin to his own 
nature in the spontaneous warmth he met on all 


sides, and the friendly welcome that falls so easily 
from Irish lips. 

One " foine saft marning " in Kerry he and Lady 
Henniker Heat on went to look over a church, and, as 
they passed through the gate, a low voice was heard 
ejaculating in tones of deep piety : " Hivin be proised, 
all the foine gintilmin and the illigint ladies are not 
dead yit." It long remained a point of dispute as to 
which of them gave the old man half a crown, but they 
both agreed that such speeches do much to sweeten 
life in this unappreciative world. 

Every August for over twenty years H. H. made 
a pilgrimage to Carlsbad. He attributed his ex- 
traordinary good health to the three weeks he spent 
there every year, drinking the waters and taking the 

In December, 1881, H. H. and Lady Heat on were 
present at a Canonization at Rome, which he describes 
in a letter to a friend : 

' The ceremony of Canonization was fixed for 
eight a.m., but we were advised to be at the Vatican 
not later than half-past seven o'clock. It was hardly 
light at six o'clock when we breakfasted in our rooms, 
and by seven o'clock carriages commenced to roll into 
the courtyard of the Hotel de Rome. 

" Punctually at half-past seven we arrived at the 
Bronze Gate of the Scala Regia, or Royal Staircase 
of the Vatican, and were confronted by an array of 
Swiss Guards. These soldiers are specially attached 
to the Pope. Their picturesque costumes were de- 
signed by Michael Angelo. Their duties are to guard 
the Vatican, and on this special morning they were 
told off to see that no person entered the precincts 
but such as held personal orders of admission to witness 
the great ceremony of Canonization. 


" Shortly after we had taken our places, the Am- 
bassadors from France, Austria, Belgium, Russia, 
Holland, Bavaria, Spain, and other countries, filed in, 
and entered the Tribuna. They looked very striking 
and attractive in their court dresses, their breasts 
being covered with decorations of various orders. 
The Ambassadors' wives, wearing veils and sparkling 
with jewels, accompanied their lords. German, 
Austrian, Spanish, and other nobles were ushered in 
by some high dignitaries connected with the Vatican. 
Just before ten o'clock, two officers of the Noble 
Guard took their places to the right and left of the 
papal throne. The Noble Guard, I should have 
stated, consisted of the noble or royal families of 
Rome who still remain loyal to the Pope. 

" At half -past ten o'clock the Swiss, the Palatine, 
and Noble Guards, to the number of two hundred 
and fifty, filed in and made a passage up the centre 
aisle, and presented arms to their commanding officer. 
Then the magnificent choir of St Peter's struck up 
an anthem of welcome. The silver trumpets sounded 
for the first time in fourteen years, and a long line of 
Cardinals, Archbishops, and Bishops, fully mitred, 
entered the Hall of Canonization. The grandest 
looking of these Cardinals was an Englishman, Cardinal 
Howard. Each dignitary was attended by a chaplain. 
Among the Bishops were several Chinamen, Greeks, 
Armenians (which surprised me), and Indians, in 
addition to German, French, English, Spanish, and 
Irish prelates. 

" After the long line of dignitaries, to the number 
of two hundred and fifty, had marched in, a murmur 
arose, and then, amidst breathless silence, his Holiness 
Pope Leo XIII., entered. A signal was given, and 
every soldier fell on his knees and presented arms. 
All eyes were strained to catch sight of the great ruler 
of men's minds, whose sway over the spiritual welfare 
of two hundred millions of human beings excites the 


wonder of England. Borne aloft on a Chair of State, 
on the shoulders of eight men, his Holiness entered, 
waving his wan thin hand, bestowing his blessing on 
the right and on the left to the kneeling multitude. 
He wore his tiara, or triple crown. Having arrived 
at the pontifical altar, the chair was lowered, the Pope 
was conducted to his throne, and the ceremonies 
commenced. Thirty-two princes of the Church, or 
Cardinals, first approached, knelt before the throne, 
and kissed the Pope's ring of office. Fifty Archbishops 
then approached and kissed the Pope's knee, and two 
hundred Bishops followed in quick succession, knelt 
and kissed the Pope's right toe, in token of their 
fidelity and obedience to the successor of Peter. 

" The ceremony of Canonization then commenced. 
The tiara was removed, and his Holiness knelt before 
the altar and prayed. Then followed the formal 
demand for the Canonization of Joannes Baptista 
Rossi, Canon of St Mary in Cosmedin, who was born 
in Liguria in 1698 ; Laurentius di Brindisi, a Capuchin, 
who was born in 1559 ' Joseph Labre, a mendicant, 
who was born in 1748, at Amettes in France ; and 
Clara de Montefalco, an Augustine nun, who was born 
in 1268. The decree was read, and, after the third 
demand, the Pope celebrated High Mass, and was 
served or waited upon by some Roman nobles and 
Cardinals. After Mass, or before its completion, the 
oblations were presented to the Pope. About fifty 
or sixty Bishops, Priests, and Franciscan brothers 
approached the throne, and presented Leo with gilded 
bread on plates of silver, wine and water in gold and 
silver barrels, and a number of cages containing live 
doves, pigeons, and smaller birds. Then the Cardinal 
Procurator offered to his Holiness a document in a purse 
of white silk embroidered in gold, and it was ordered 
that the news of the Canonization be sent abroad, and 
be proclaimed in all parts of the earth. 

" It was three o'clock before the ceremonies and 


grand music had concluded, and the sediari and porta 
flambelli re-entered eight of the former to carry the 
chair, and the two latter one on each side of the chair 
bearing enormous fans to keep his Holiness fanned, 
and supplied with cool, fresh air. To the strains of 
solemn yet joyful music the Pope and Bishops passed 
out again in procession, and the Canonization was 

It was with special appreciation, more than twenty 
years later, that H. H. read the " In Memoriam " 
lines to Pope Leo XIII. in " Punch " by Sir Owen 
Seaman : 

" The long day closes and the strife is dumb, 
Thither he goes where temporal loss is gain, 
Where he that asks to enter must become 
A little child again. 

And since in perfect humbleness of heart 
He sought his churches' honour, not his own, 
All creeds are one to share the mourners' part 
Beside the empty throne." 

Travelling on the Continent with H. H. gave, 
perhaps, the best illustration of his monumental 
energy. Station-masters and porters knew his familiar 
figure rushing down the platform with arms burdened 
with every conceivable newspaper and magazine, 
which he read at lightning speed. At each stopping 
place he jumped out to buy a fresh armful of papers, 
until by the end of the journey the carriage was nearly 
snowed under. He invariably met some of his 
numerous old friends or parliamentary colleagues 
on the train, and would spend hours playing bridge 
or exchanging reminiscences. 

He would then open a bulging despatch bag con- 
taining postal blue books and correspondence, and 

/.'/VTV" f r// -."/V. 



would set to work upon them for a couple of hours, 
oblivious of all surroundings. In this fashion the 
journey would be accomplished, and he would reach 
his destination perfectly fresh and anxious to join in 
any festivity that was taking place. It is entirely 
characteristic of him that on one occasion, when he 
and his daughter reached Cologne at two in the morning 
after a sixteen hours' journey, he should propose 
showing her over the Cathedral then and there. 

The opening of the year usually found him on the 
Riviera with his family. At one time they made their 
head-quarters at Monte Carlo, but latterly they 
preferred wintering at the beautiful Winter Palace at 
Cimiez. " If it were not for the Rooms, Monte Carlo 
would be the health resort of Europe/' was the opinion 
of Sir William Jenner, and it has certainly a far milder 
climate than the rest of the French Riviera. It was 
when he was staying in the Principality that H. H. 
received a letter from his agent at Canterbury earnestly 
entreating him on no account to date his election 
address from Monte Carlo ! 

H. H. was never a great gambler, but he thoroughly 
enjoyed an hour or two in the Rooms. He used no 
elaborate system, but staked on Zero every time, 
besides playing on various combinations of the number 
9. Nine he always considered his lucky number. 
It became an accepted thing in his family that on 
arrival at any strange hotel he should be given Room 
9 or 99, or any sleeping berth on board ship would 
almost invariably be either of those numbers. 

The Rules and Regulations governing the Casino 
are very strictly enforced, and H. H. could remember 
seeing Lord Randolph Churchill turned away because 
he was wearing brown boots, while another Chancellor 


of the Exchequer Mr Lloyd-George met the same 
fate because he wore a Norfolk coat. The latter case 
was particularly annoying as the rest of the party, 
who had also been golfing, were allowed in the Rooms 
on the strength of their being clad in plain country 
clothes a fine distinction that evidently appealed to 
the door-keeper. 

Most Monte Carlo stories are too well known to 
be worth repeating, but H. H. was particularly fond 
of the oft-told tale of the man who rose from the tables 
muttering " Ruined ! Ruined ! " as he staggered out 
of the room. A minute later a shot was fired in the 
garden, and the officials, rushing out, found the man 
lying in the middle of the path with a smoking revolver 
in his hand. In accordance with custom the officials 
stuffed his pockets with bank notes ere they went to 
get assistance. 

The moment they were out of sight the " corpse " 
rose to his feet, and re-entered the Casino. The indig- 
nation of the officials can be imagined when after a 
hue and cry they finally discovered him playing a 
winning game of rouge et noir with their money, secure 
in the knowledge that they dared not arrest him. 

On the brow of the hill just opposite the Casino 
stands the little English Church. On one occasion 
as the first morning hymn No. 4 was given out, one 
of the congregation rose and left the building. He 
hurried to the casino to put a sovereign on 4 en 
plein. It turned up three times running. The lucky 
winner could not keep such a piece of good fortune 
to himself, with the result that on the following Sunday 
the church was packed to the brim. As the first hymn 
was given out there was a perfect stampede for the 
door, as the gamblers young and old rushed to the 


Casino. Needless to say the number did not turn 
up ; but that is the reason why the authorities have 
found it advisable to discontinue the use of all hymns 
numbered lower than 37. 

The visits to the Riviera were rendered doubly 
enjoyable by the presence of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy 
and his charming gifted daughters, who lived at Nice, 
and entertained every one of distinction and brilliance. 
Sir Charles lived to the great age of 84, and was never 
tired of talking of his early days when he was the leader 
of the Young Ireland movement. His conversational 
opening, " When I was in prison," was a little startling 
to anyone unacquainted with his romantic history. 

At Nice one morning when H. H. was having d4- 
jeuner with him, Sir Charles called over a waiter to 
tell him that he wanted the claret bottle to be corked. 

" Gar f on " he began, but forgot the French word 
" Gar f on, voulez-vous voulez-vous bouchoir bouchon 
boucher " all the time waving the claret on high 
" what the devil's the word ? " 

" Shure and is it corrk yer honour was afther 
wantin' ? ' said a mellifluous voice in the purest 
Tipperary, and the " gargon " was joyfully hailed as 
a compatriot by Sir Charles. 

Sir Charles was constantly receiving letters from 
England insufficiently stamped, which necessitated his 
paying the extra postage. After a time he became 
so incensed that he declared he would no longer accept 
such letters. Soon after this a letter arrived addressed 
in H. H.'s flowing hand and bearing a penny stamp. 
This was altogether too much for Sir Charles who 
quite reasonably thought that H. H. of all people 
might be expected to know better and he positively 
declined to take the letter in. One of his daughters, 


feeling this was rather hard treatment of an old friend, 
ran after the postman and paid the fine herself. When 
the letter was opened it was found to contain a cheque 
for 100. H. H. had made arrangements for the 
publication of Sir Charles's " Life of Carlyle," and 
this was the first cheque from the publishers. 

This little episode when repeated to H. H. con- 
firmed him more fully than ever in his opinion that 
the English post office is grossly unfair in fining the 
innocent recipient double postage. Sir Charles under 
the more generous French system was, after all, only 
asked to pay the exact amount due. 

A letter from Sir Charles, at Nice, to H. H., at Cannes : 


You are demented to think of going to Rome 
or Pau. 

You left London to avoid the cold, and there is 
cold everywhere in Europe except where you are. 
Sit still and enjoy the sunshine, and you may turn your 
leisure to good purpose by planning the business of 
next session as far as you are concerned. If the 
Government include Penny Postage in their pro- 
gramme it will be a great triumph for you. 

I answered your last letter to London, but I will 
answer you again if you come over to lunch some day, 
say Wednesday, or any other day that suits you better, 
if you send me a telegram the night before. 

If it be reasonably probable that Penny Postage 
is coming on, you ought to prepare a short modest, 
practical speech, on that success, and an alternative 
one to be ready in case the Government do nothing. 
Here is work for a fortnight better than scampering over 
Europe. When I see you I will suggest something still 
more necessary to be done in your brief holiday. 
Always yours, 



Sir Charles also wrote the following from Nice 
to H. H., in London : 


If Stead puts his ghost into " The Review of 
Reviews," his readers who endured with difficulty 
General Booth, and Mrs Besant, and all his other mad 
proteges, will certainly abandon him. The ghost 
is a ghost from Scotland Yard. In exchange for the 
Stead romance, I send you the last good mot here fit 
to tickle the midriff of the Carlton Club. One of the 
Members for this district, the late treasurer R., who had 
to resign in connection with the Panama business, 
admitted that he had got the money charged upon 
him, but declared that instead of applying it to his 
own use he had given it to the Secret Service fund ! 
(Fonds secrets). The client of a lawyer was since 
detected in helping himself from the money on a 
bronze plate where the lawyer deposited his fees. 
" Que voulez-vous faire de cet argent-la ? " demanded 
the angry notary. " Mais, monsieur, 1'envoyer au 
fonds secrets." 

I hope you are coming out, it would be a wise 
disposal of the three weeks which remain. If so pray 
send me Parkes, and I will have it read and ready 
to return when you are going back to London. 

If you desire it, or think any good end would be 
promoted, I shall be happy to see Mr W., but in truth I 
have no longer any desire to make new acquaintances. 
That is a pleasure for men in the vigour of life. Send 
him, however. 

I take the " Times " during the sitting of Parliament, 
and shall see Gladstone's speech twenty-four hours 
after it is delivered. He has a frightfully difficult 
position with Labouchere and Company preparing 
pitfalls. The crux appears to be the retention of the 
Irish members at Westminster. For my part I am 
quite content they should be excluded from the British 


Parliament, if it be distinctly understood that a 
Parliament where we are not represented is not entitled 
to impose taxes on us. We would be in the same 
position as the Colonies and entitled to the same 

Very faithfully yours, 


It was always with regret that H. H. turned his 
back on the Riviera, where he so greatly enjoyed the 
blue skies and warm sunshine. 

H. H. never travelled about without a mass of 
correspondence and other papers which, owing to 
his rooted objection to destroying even an envelope 
or old invitation card, would soon assume enormous 
proportions. It was his practice to leave these papers 
unpacked to the last, so that they might be read and 
studied up to the moment of departure. With the 
cab at the door they would be thrust into two bursting 
dispatch-cases, and porters would struggle to close 
a gaping tin deed-box. Even then H. H. never felt 
happy while they were out of his sight, and a stranger 
might have imagined that the boxes contained priceless 
jewels in place of postal guides and Blue books. 

One particularly cold January, H. H. and his 
family returned from Cimiez to Canterbury for the 
election. It was a bitter night when they reached the 
hotel, and the rooms seemed very inadequately heated. 
The manager moved them into another part of the 
house, where they were agreeably surprised to find 
the sitting-room most beautifully warm and cosy. 
As the evening wore on the room grew hotter and 
hotter, and the hotter it became the more H. H. con- 
gratulated himself on securing immunity from the icy 
blasts outside. 


The reason of the unexpeected warmth was made 
apparent early the next morning, when H. H., whose 
room adjoined the sitting-room, awoke to find himself 
half-choked with smoke. The sitting-room, which had 
been smouldering the whole day before, had now burst 
into flames. He tried to rush into the room to secure 
his papers, but was held back by the firemen who had 
arrived on the scene. H. H. offered a sovereign to 
anyone who would rescue his boxes, and one of the 
firemen dived into the smoke and reappeared with 
the precious dispatch cases and tin box unharmed. 
Family tradition says that H. H. drew a deep breath 
of relief and then suddenly exclaimed, " Good heavens ! 
where are my children ? " 

But as everybody knows family traditions are 
well, family traditions. 



IT was the opinion of H. H. that every Member 
of Parliament should be sent on a voyage round 
the world before being permitted to take his 
seat at Westminster, which is after all only 
a paraphrase of Kipling's : 

" What do they know of England 
Who only England know ? " 

Such an accusation could not be brought against 
H. H., who visited almost every corner of the Empire 
at one time or another. Age could not alter nor 
custom stale his insatiable delight in sea-voyaging. 
The moment he got on board he felt ten years slip 
from him, and not the youngest traveller on his first 
voyage could enter more enthusiastically into board- 
ship life. 

It was a great pleasure to H. H. if he could find 
a good chess-player amongst his fellow-passengers, 
and many travellers will remember the groups that 
used to gather round the chess-board when he was 
playing. The hottest day in the Red Sea would 
find him engaged in a fierce contest with another ardent 
soul, upheld possibly by the thought of the long iced 
lemon squash which was always the stake for which 
he played in the tropics. 

Although he must have made the voyage to 


(Original in the fos session of Alexander Gilc/irist, J.P.) 


Australia at least thirty times, his interest in the 
various stopping places remained as fresh as ever. 
He could never understand the attitude of the blase 
traveller who refuses to be awakened at dawn to see 
Mount Etna smouldering, or to watch the passage 
through the Straits of Messina. That anyone should 
choose an unbroken night's slumber in preference 
to seeing or doing anything even mildly interesting 
was to H. H. utterly incomprehensible. 

Throughout his busy life he had the enviable 
faculty of dropping asleep at any time, anywhere, 
and after five minutes' light slumber waking up 
refreshed and invigorated. It was only after his 
serious illness in 1911 that he learnt the misery of 
sleepless unending nights, and the slow coming of 
the longed-for morning. In speaking of insomnia 
one day at luncheon, at the Bath Club, Sir Josiah 
Symon, the Chief Justice of South Australia, quoted 
A. L. Storrie's verses : 

" Measure me out from the fathomless tun, 

That somewhere or other you keep 
In your vasty cellars, O wealthy one, 
Twenty gallons of sleep. 

Twenty gallons of balmy sleep, 

Dreamless and deep and mild, 
Of the excellent brand you used to keep 

When I was a little child. 

Measure me out, O merchant mine, 
Twenty gallons of sleep." 

H. H. repeated the last line, and those who were 
fond of him were struck with the sadness in his voice. 

In his early days of travel H. H. had many ex- 
citing adventures, including three days in a cyclone 


and a collision. An account of the collision was found 
in an old diary : 

" The P. & O. Steamship ' Peshawur ' (Captain E. J. 
Baker) left Gravesend on September I4th, 1882, bound 
for Australia, having on board 91 first-class passengers 
and 56 second-class, beside a heavy mail from England. 

" She left Colombo on the evening of Saturday, 
October I4th. All went well until the following 
day, Sunday, October i5th. In the evening the 
majority of the first-class passengers were on the 
quarter-deck attending divine service. The evening 
was beautifully fine and clear. The service concluded 
at nine o'clock and the people were going to saunter 
about, when a large ship was noticed on the starboard 
bow with all sails set. 

" The officer on watch, Mr Buchanan, alleges that 
when first seen the ship had no lights visible. Two 
minutes afterwards a red light was suddenly shown. 
This light was also seen by a large number of passengers 
from three to six minutes before the collision. One 
of the first to see it was Captain Baker, who had been 
attending prayers on the quarter-deck. He immedi- 
ately rushed on to the bridge and, seeing the danger 
of his steamer continuing her course, he gave orders 
to stop the engines and a second order to go full speed 
astern in order to permit the sailing ship to pass the 
rule being that a steamship should keep out of the 
way of a sailing ship. 

" Unfortunately at this moment, the master or 
captain of the ship also changed her course in place 
of following the strict regulations to keep on her way 
or port the wind being on her port quarter. She 
luffed right up, starboarding her helm, and dashed 
into us. 

" My cabin was on the port side near the engines 
and I was lying down reading. I had just looked 
at my watch and found it was nine o'clock, and I 


heard the bell ring to stop her. A minute afterwards 
I heard the bell ring for full speed astern, but at first 
thought it was merely stopping because the bearings 
were heated, which is often the case. However, to 
satisfy myself I leisurely got up and walking out found 
the purser and a passenger quietly smoking their 
pipes, and I concluded that all was right. 

' However, I walked over to the foot of the stairs 
on the starboard side leading to the hurricane deck 
when like an avalanche there tumbled down the stairs 
from the quarter-deck about twenty passengers and 
stewards. I was knocked down and ' a ship on top of 
us ' was shouted out. I rose and with a number of 
others made along the starboard side of the aft of the 
quarter-deck. Again I was knocked down, and on 
looking up I saw a horrible black mass above my 
head. I rose again and scrambled out of the way. 
The confusion and consternation about me were 
awful for a few minutes, and when the horrible un- 
usually large red light drifted away there was some 
relief. All men, women, and children, to the number 
of 150, crowded to the after part of the deck and we 
expected our vessel to go down. My wife called for 
her little children, and you may imagine my horror 
when I pictured their being crushed to death, as I 
knew they were in bed apparently about the spot 
where the ship ran into us. I tried to descend the 
companion ladder into the saloon and found the re- 
freshment bar shattered and a gaping hole in the 
side of the ship. The iceman, a native, was lying with 
an immense block of iron on his leg. On entering the 
saloon I found our nurse with the youngest baby in 
her arms all safe, and in the cabin I found our three 
little boys, Jack, Reggie, and Bertie, sound asleep, 
not even awakened by the awful crash a little above 
them. It was a great relief to hurry back on deck and 
tell my little wife that our children were safe. 

" Passengers hurriedly compared notes and many 


were the miraculous escapes recorded. Where ladies 
were sitting a few minutes before there was nothing 
but wreckage. An immense quantity of stones, bricks, 
and mortar were strewn about this being the cement 
from the bows of the other ship. 

' ' The damage done to the ' Peshawur ' where she 
struck near our centre consisted in cutting through our 
waterways, splitting and twisting up the iron plating 
below the main deck and knocking a hole through 
the side four feet above the water. 

"The vessel in freeing herself carried away the 
bulwarks for twenty-five feet, carried away our gang- 
way ladder, two large boats, that is, the life boat and 
the cutter, also smashing the standard compass bridge, 
the door of the captain's cabin, and breaking one of 
the booms. 

" Our first duty was to find out if our steamer was 
sinking as we expected, but in a few minutes it was 
reported that we were making no water, and in fact 
that we were safe. 

"The machinery gave a few revolutions, which 
further convinced us that all was well. 

" Our next anxiety was for the other ship. On 
looking round we saw she had not sunk, for she was 
showing blue lights. Captain Baker gave orders to 
steam back close to the ship, and he sent a boat in 
charge of the second officer to ascertain the extent 
of her injuries and inquire if she wanted any assistance. 

"The delay was somewhat painful, because the 
boat took a considerable time in returning in conse- 
quence of our ship having to steam some distance off 
to avoid a second collision. 

" At last the boat drew alongside and the quarter- 
master shouted to the captain : ' " Glenroy," sir, bound 
from Mauritius to Madras and Calcutta, four hundred 
coolies on board and cholera broken out.' 

" The second officer said that the captain of the 
' Glenroy ' (tonnage 1139) reported the bow of his 


ship was completely knocked away, his fore compart- 
ment full of water, foremast badly sprung, and the 
ship making water through her foremast water tight 
bulkhead. She was an old iron ship of 25 years' 
standing. The captain's request that the ' Peshawur ' 
would stand by him all night was of course complied 

" When day dawned the full extent of the havoc 
was visible. We spent many hours endeavouring to 
make fast to the ' Glenroy ' in order to tow her into 

" Only five knots an hour was the speed allowed, 
because the other ship was making water very fast, 
although all hands were at work on the pumps. 

" On Thursday morning at eight o'clock we arrived 
off Galle, where we signalled and obtained a pilot boat 
who took off our telegrams, and in the afternoon we 
arrived safely at Colombo without the loss of a single 

The end of the story is worth recording. At the 
subsequent Inquiry it was proved there was no one 
on watch on board the " Glenroy " at the time of the 
collision ; the captain and the first and second mates 
were playing cards. Before coming into court they 
had evidently agreed on all telling the same story, 
and, when each in turn was asked at what hour the 
accident happened, one after the other they replied : 
" Oh, half -past eight, or a quarter to nine or there- 
abouts ; Oh, half-past eight, or a quarter to nine or 
thereabouts. Oh, half-past eight, or a quarter to nine 
or thereabouts." The unanimity of this simple 
utterance at once threw suspicion on their bona fides 
and ultimately led to their undoing. Truly was it 
written, the way of transgressors is hard. 

In 1875, the civilized world was shocked to hear 


of the murder of Mr James Woodford Birch, the 
British Resident of Perak. A full account of the 
assassination is given in Sir Frank Swettenham's 
book " Malay Sketches." The Sultan Abdullah and 
others were banished as accomplices, while the three 
chiefs who actually planned the murder were sentenced 
to death. 

H. H. was firmly convinced of the innocence of the 
Sultan Abdullah, and interested himself greatly in 
trying to secure his pardon, and partly as a result of 
his representations Abdulla's term of banishment in 
the Seychelles was considerably reduced ; but as Mahe, 
the capital of the Seychelles, is locally supposed to 
be the original Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve would 
have considered this a strange form of punishment. 

The ex-Sultan wrote the following letters to H. H. : 


April i6th, 1891. 

It is my melancholy duty to have to announce 
you the lamented death of my wife which took place 
on Easter day at 8 a.m. ; she leaves behind her several 
children to bewail her loss. This is to me all additional 
sorrow. Before this sad event I have been deploring 
my situation as an exiled man ; now I have to deplore 
the loss of my wife. I think it is the will of the 
Almighty, and I therefore resign myself to Him, 
bearing in mind the Latin maxim " Per ardua libertas." 
With my kindest regards, 
Faithfully yours, 


ex- Sultan of Perak. 



ist May, 1902. 

I have the pleasure to present and introduce 
to you my son, Rapas Chulan, the bearer of this letter, 
who accompanies Sultan Idris of Perak on the invi- 
tation of His Majesty's Government, to witness the 

I take this opportunity to again convey to you 
my heartfelt thanks for the kind assistance you have 
rendered to me in having worked for my release from 
the Seychelles. This is a debt of gratitude which it 
would be impossible for me to pay. 

I am sorry to tax your kindness. I still solicit 
further help from you during this " Year of grace," 
the year of the Coronation of the King. I would even 
feel grateful if you would take this opportunity to 
approach His Majesty's Government and use your 
powerful influence and those of your friends to intercede 
for my freedom. 

I have been in exile for 24 years. Whether I 
merit such treatment or not Heaven knows. I now 
seek for freedom and desire to return to my country, 
not to reside there entirely, but to be at liberty to go 
in and out as any free man. 

Trusting you and your family are in good health, 
and with kind regards to all. 
Believe me, 

Yours very sincerely, 

ex-Sultan of Perak. 

On the various occasions when H. H. visited the 
Seychelles he always had interesting conversations 
with the deposed Sultan. One year Abdullah presented 
him with a wonderful collection of walking-sticks 
made of carved ivory and cinnamon wood. For 


some years H. H. had a rather unique collection of 
walking-sticks of strange shapes and designs, which 
were always kept in a dark corner in the hall of his 
Eaton Square residence together with the ordinary 
umbrellas and sticks. This not infrequently led to 
unforeseen results. One Sunday morning during the 
season a very dandified young man, who was stopping 
in the house, borrowed a stick and had walked half- 
way up the Square before he realized that he was 
carrying part of the jaw-bone of a shark. He went 
back to change it for an inoffensive-looking stick with 
a brown knob. It was only when he reached Church 
Parade that he discovered the inoffensive brown knob 
to be the head of Disraeli, while the rest of the stick 
represented a full length cartoon of the statesman. 
It was a wonderful piece of carving a presentation 
to H. H. from some admirer in Canterbury. After 
this H. H. gave instructions for his curio sticks to be 
kept apart, and when he no longer saw them he speedily 
lost interest in his collection. 

In 1883 H. H. visited Mauritius for the first time, 
and thereafter his associations with the island were 
of the happiest. A feeling of mutual sympathy and 
friendship existed until his death, and all things that 
affected the progress and prosperity of the Island were 
eagerly watched by him. Letters and weekly papers 
from Sir William Newton kept him informed of the 
general progress of the Colony, and were an additional 
link in the chain of pleasant memories. 

Mauritian friends must forgive a twice-told tale 
for the sake of an old friendship. At philatelic gather- 
ings, H. H. could never resist his best-loved story of 
the keen but impoverished stamp collector who 
advertised " Wanted to meet a lady possessing a 


2d. blue Mauritius stamp with a view to matrimony." 

It was in company with Sir John Pope Hennessy 
that stormy petrel of the Crown Colonies that H. H. 
first visited Mauritius. 

Prior to Pope Hennessy's appointment to the 
Government of Mauritius, he had been offered and 
had accepted the Government of New South Wales ; 
but the appointment had been met by so determined 
a protest on the part of the New South Wales Ministers 
that the Secretary of State had been compelled to 
inform him that " the appointment could not be 
proceeded with." 

A new friendship with H. H. inspired Pope 
Hennessy with the hope that he had found in him a 
man of sufficient influence over the Press and public 
opinion in N.S.W. to convert Ministers from their 
determination not to accept him as Governor. 

The following year 1884 H. H., on the invitation 
of Pope Hennessy, used his good offices with the 
Colonial Office, and his influence with the Press, in 
support of a scheme of constitutional reform for 
Mauritius to which the Home Government was opposed 
on general principles of policy. 

The form of constitution proposed was first set up 
in New South Wales in the year 1842, and by an 
Imperial Act of 1850 was extended to all the Australian 
Colonies except Western Australia. It was a form 
of Government expressly designed to serve as a bridge 
over which the Colonies might pass to the full liberties 
of self-government. 

The advocates of the system included two parties : 
those who desired to see it carried out to what they 
conceived to be the logical consequence of complete 
separation from Great Britain, and those who desired 


to see it carried out to what they conceived to be 
the logical consequence of a federated British Empire. 
Pope Hennessy was an adherent of the former party, 
H. H. of the latter. 

When the unwilling consent of the Colonial Office 
had been given to the constitutional changes proposed 
by Hennessy, the Colony became divided between 
adherents of the two parties. Pope Hennessy himself, 
in social conversation on the subject of Home Rule 
for Ireland, made no disguise of his adhesion to the 
policy of Home Rule with a view to complete separa- 
tion. In public his use of the formula " Mauritius 
for the Mauritians " could leave no doubt of the 
ultimate issue he desired. 

The stormy years that ensued, the suspension and 
subsequent reinstatement of Pope Hennessy, on 
the petition of the majority of the colonists, followed 
by his final retirement a year later, gave H. H. cause 
for grave anxiety. His personal friendship and 
admiration for the brilliant attainments of Pope 
Hennessy were not always in accord with his views 
upon the policy adopted by the latter. ' You cannot 
know what it is to live and, if necessary, to die for 
Ireland," Pope Hennessy said not without emotion 
when Sir Charles Bruce, holding the Office of Colonial 
Secretary, tendered his resignation, feeling he could 
no longer with honour support the Governor. 

In 1895, Sir Charles Bruce was offered the appoint- 
ment of Governor of Mauritius, and accepted it as 
the supreme vindication of his action. During his 
administration, and largely due to his initiative, the 
penny postage system was extended to Mauritius. 
The influence Sir Charles exerted in the cause of 
cheapening and extending post and cable communi- 


cation proved of the utmost value to H. H. in voicing 
the desires of our distant Colonies. 

In 1884, H. H. wrote to the Governor of Mauritius 
on the subject of a duplicate cable to Australia via 
the Cape. Sir James Anderson, Managing Director 
of the Eastern Telegraph Company, had declared 
that the weather was so bad between the Cape, Mauri- 
tius, and Australia that it must always be next to im- 
possible to effect repairs. It was proved that the 
contention of the Telegraph Company was ill-founded, 
and the outcome of H. H.'s letter was that the Council 
of Government voted a subsidy for a term of years 
and resolved that he should be asked to represent 
the Colony at an International Telegraph Conference 
which was to be held at Berlin in June, 1886. The 
cable from Natal to Australia, touching at Mauritius, 
was completed fifteen years later. 

H. H. greatly valued a beautiful old French cruet- 
set which bore the following inscription : 



The mustard-pot belonging to the set was stolen 
by a dishonest servant, and all efforts to trace it proved 
unavailing. After a lapse of twelve years H. H. re- 
ceived a letter from the manager of a foundry, saying 
that a cup bearing his name had been brought in with 
some other old silver to be melted down. H. H. at 
once bought it back and the complete set is now 
in the possession of his son, Herbert Henniker Heaton, 
Assistant-Colonial Secretary of Mauritius. 

A vote of sympathy was extended by the Council 
of the Government of Mauritius when the news of 
the death of H. H. reached the Colony. 


Dr Laurent in proposing the motion said : " The 
Colony has lost a friend of many years and the Mother 
Country a distinguished Citizen." 

This last act of sympathy on the part of Mauritius 
could not fail to touch deeply Lady Henniker Heaton, 
who knew how warmly he had loved his old friends 
in the beautiful Island. 

In 1889 H. H. paid a flying visit to India and 
China, but, unfortunately, his stay in both countries 
was too short to yield much in the way of reminiscences. 
A complimentary notice, referring to his postal cam- 
paign, written by a Babu appeared in one of the 
papers two years later : 

" Penny postage all throughout this wide world, 
which all pretty well belong with Great Britain, and 
the sun hardly never set on it shall be one of the 
certain accomplishments before conclusion of nine- 
teenth century. When this desirable desideratum 
have been secured for us, to whom shall we lift eyes in 
token of gratitude for service done ? Grand Old 
Man ? No. Lord Lansdowne ? No. Lord Salis- 
bury ? No, certainly not. When that day shall 
be arrived, let us then sacrifice ourself on bended knee 
and give all devotion and reverence richly deserved 
to the noble Marquis of Canterbury, who elevate him- 
self after many years hard struggle with it, up from 
Australian merchant to dictate terms of penny postage 
to commercial Europe and the world. And get it 

H. H. paid a second visit to China and Japan a 
few years later, and while in Pekin he had the pleasure 
of meeting Sir Robert Hart, the famous head of the 
Chinese customs. A warm friendship existed between 
Lady Hart and H. H.'s family, and it was with great 


pleasure he renewed acquaintance with Sir Robert 
on his return to England after an absence of thirty 
years. Soon after his arrival in London Sir Robert 
and Lady Hart came to a tea party on the Terrace. 
H. H. asked him what struck him as the greatest 
change in London since he had left, and he replied 
instantly, " The noise." Lady Hart related that 
driving down to the House their carriage had got into 
a block, and the policeman in charge of the traffic 
held out his hand in the usual way ; quite unused to 
this procedure, Sir Robert in great excitement leant 
out of the carriage and shouted, " For God's sake, 
move, man ; you'll be killed." 

In 1890, H. H. made his first voyage to America. 
It was then he began his life-long friendship with 
the great Postmaster-General of the United States, 
the Honourable John Wanamaker. It was a friend- 
ship that had its roots in a common love of humanity 
and an abiding conviction of the necessity of a closer 
union between the two great English speaking races. 
Mr Wanamaker's heroic labours in connection with 
Anglo-American penny postage, during the time of 
and after he left office, undoubtedly paved the way 
for the consummation of his cherished ideal. He was 
one of the pioneers of an Anglo-American entente 
cordiale ; and when he visited London he was the 
first American ever elected a member of the Carlton 

During H. H.'s visit to America, he spent much of 
his time visiting the large towns and inspecting the 
workings of their postal system. At a certain town 
occurred one of those accidents which happen not only 
in the best regulated families but also in the best 
regulated post offices. 


The postmaster called on H. H. and offered to 
show him over the post office. In those days the 
employment of women as clerks was something of an 
innovation. The postmaster waxed eloquent on the 
subject of their superiority over men : they were 
more industrious and trustworthy, and as they neither 
drank nor gambled they had less temptation to dis- 

When H. H. and his conductor reached the post 
office, they were surprised to find no clerks behind 
the counter, while a long queue of customers were 
waiting with every visible sign of annoyance. The 
postmaster, followed by H. H., pushed his way to the 
back office and opened the door. 

His horrified ears were greeted with cries of, 
' Ladies to the centre. Gentlemen give the right 
hand. Set to partners." 

The immaculate young women of the post office 
were having a dance ! 

The mortification of the poor postmaster knew no 
bounds. Such a thing had never happened before, 
and was never likely to happen again, he assured H. H., 
who, needless to say, was highly diverted. 

The postmaster's cup of humiliation was, however, 
not yet full. He took H. H. to see a wonderful machine 
for " postmarking " stamps. Up till then all stamps 
were cancelled by hand, a lengthy process requiring 
the services of several clerks. By means of this new 
invention several hundred stamps were done a 
minute, with the consequent saving of labour and 
money. H. H. picked up a handful of letters and 
examined the postmark with some care. 

" I see they are all stamped with yesterday's 
date," he said. 


It was only too true. The clerk in charge had 
forgotten to alter the date. Kindness suggests that 
a veil be dropped over the sufferings of the unfortunate 
postmaster, who sank into a fit of impenetrable 
gloom, from which H. H/s sympathetic assurances 
that " these accidents will happen " could not suffice 
to arouse him. 

It may here be mentioned that America was first 
in the field with a postmark that was clear and read- 
able, with the date, hour, and place clearly printed. 
Under H. H.'s persistent efforts, the indecipherable 
smudge that obliterated the Royal features on our 
English stamps gave way to a fair imitation of the 
clean cancelling used in America. 

In the winter of 1905-6, H. H. made one of his 
periodic visits to Australia. On this occasion he 
decided to make the return journey via Fiji and 
America, so that he might have the opportunity of 
seeing his son, Herbert, who was then in the Colonial 
Office in Fiji. The Governor at that date was Sir 
Everard im Thurn, who gave a most cordial welcome 
to H. H., and began a friendship which was continued 
by an exchange of letters for some years. H. H. was 
astonished to find such signs of civilization in far-off 
Fiji. Shops with plate-glass windows and electric 
light all seemed very far removed from the cannibal 
island of popular imagination. 

It was a great pleasure to H. H. to see his son after 
so many years, and to hear of his early experiences 
in the Colonial Office of Fiji. As a very junior cadet 
he was sent out to make a report of a neighbouring 
island. His youthful enthusiasm received a slight 
check when the report was returned from head-quarters 
with the gentle reproof scribbled across it, " You 


write as one having authority and not as the 

H. H. was greatly entertained by his son's ex- 
periences as a magistrate, administering justice amongst 
these simple children of nature. On one occasion 
when he was on the bench a woman summoned a 
man for ill-treating her, and knocking her down. 
The man's defence was that she was his wife, and 
therefore he had every right to do as he pleased in 
his treatment of her. She stoutly denied being 
his wife, and maintained that they had been baptized 
together but not married. Judgment was given in 
the woman's favour, but, after the court closed, the 
magistrate, feeling a little uneasy about the affair, 
consulted the Bishop. From the Bishop he learnt 
that the couple had been neither married nor baptized 
but were vaccinated together ! 

H. H. and his son had a number of stories to tell 
each other, and at the end of two hours' conversation 
his son said : 

" And now I must tell you we have had a cable from 
England announcing the Government's resignation, 
and I am afraid you will have a great rush to get 
home in time for the General Election." 

" Impossible," cried H. H. " Before I left I had 
an assurance from Balfour that no election would take 
place for a long time. Why didn't you tell me the 
moment I landed ? ' 

' Because," replied the son of his father, ' I 
have been away five years, and I wanted to hear all 
the home news, and I knew if I told you about the 
General Election I should never hear a word." 

H. H. hurried across America in a fever of im- 
patience. By the generous kindness of Sir Thomas 


Shaughnessy, the President of the C.P.R., special 
arrangements were made which enabled him to catch 
the ship to England with two hours to spare. He 
reached Canterbury just in time for the election and 
was returned by a majority of one thousand. 

While in America, he heard that his name was 
included in the New Year's Honours as K.C.M.G., and 
he at once cabled home to decline the honour. 

On his return, he found many letters of con- 
gratulation awaiting him ; among them a line from 
the Commander-in-Chief in India Kitchener of 
Khartoum : 


Dec. 21, '05. 

I am very glad of this opportunity of con- 
gratulating you heartily on the K.C.M.G. you have 
so well deserved. 


In 1907 H. H. experienced his second earthquake, 
the first having occurred in the South of France in 
the late eighties, which was not attended by very serious 
results. In this year he sailed for Jamaica in the 
' Port Kingston," and enjoyed the pleasantest of 
outward bound voyages in congenial company. 

His own account of the earthquake is given : 

' We arrived on Friday, nth January, at Kingston, 
the capital of Jamaica, and on the following morning 
we went by railway to Port Antonio, which is 49 
miles from Kingston, where we were entertained at 

1 Some words, written by Lord Kitchener of H. H. after his death, express- 
ing his " friendship and sincere admiration of his services," are doubly prized 
as coming from the great soldier and statesman who at the moment of writing 
held in his hands the safety of England and the Empire. 


a banquet and ball. Port Antonio is one of the 
loveliest spots on earth, and the fine hotel is splendidly 
situated. It is almost an island, being surrounded 
on three sides with water, with a narrow neck of land 
connecting it with the mainland. We returned on 
Sunday morning. Our train stopped at several 
beautiful places along the seashore, and we arrived 
at Kingston about midday. In the afternoon we had 
tea at the residence of the Hon. Clarence Bourne, the 
Chief Secretary of the Colony, where we met Sir 
Alexander Swettenham, and other notabilities of the 
island, including Colonel Kitchener, brother of General 
Lord Kitchener. Our party were lodged at the 
Constant Spring Hotel, and on Monday morning we 
went into the city to attend the Agricultural Conference, 
where the wealthy representatives of the whole of 
the West Indies were assembled to consider methods 
for the development of the cotton, sugar, rubber, and 
other industries. Admirable speeches were made by 
the Governor, Sir J. A. Swettenham, the Archbishop 
of the West Indies, and other leading men. 

" I was invited by the Governor to lunch with him 
at the Jamaica Club with several others, including 
Sir James Fergusson, formerly our Postmaster-General, 
Sir Daniel Morris, the Hon. Clarence Bourne, and Mr 
Arnold Forster, M.P., late Secretary of State for War. 
We had a very interesting luncheon at the Club, 
which was a fine building, two storeys high, constructed 
of brick, and surrounded by a high brick wall. We 
rose from the luncheon table about half -past two. The 
party returned to the Conference, with the exception 
of Sir James Fergusson and myself. Sir James, 
being a Director of the Royal Mail Steamship Company, 
had an engagement with its local representative, 
Captain Const antine. 

" A few minutes before three I left the Club with 
the Hon. Mr Cork. We drove to the post office, where 
I had an interesting interview with the acting post- 


master, the postmaster being ill. I then visited the 
Supreme Court, and saw Sir Fielding Clarke on the 
Bench, and accepted an invitation to dine with him 
and Lady Clarke that night. They were old friends 
I knew in Hong-Kong. 

" Leaving the Supreme Courts I called at the leading 
tobacco manufacturer in Kingston. He presented 
me with a few cigars, and asked me to see the process 
of manufacture in the basement of the shop. I 
declined. Next day he congratulated me on not going, 
for 40 of the 120 employees were killed two minutes 
after my visit. 

" I went up the main street from the post office with 
my friend, and I saw thousands of people, men, women, 
and children, jumping pell-mell into the streets. I 
felt a singular shock, which they more readily detected 
to be the first indication of an earthquake. 

" A moment afterwards the earth rose and fell up 
and down. There was an upward and downward 
movement with shaking, but no swaying. For an 
instant we did not realize what had occurred. Then 
another great shock came, and a huge building, three 
storeys high, fell right across the street a yard in front 
of me. I looked round and saw another building 
falling across the street just at my back, and the 
building on my left-hand side also came down with a 

" I took refuge with my friend on the right-hand of 
the street, but the whole place was in darkness for 
five minutes. The air was full of huge quantities of 
dust and mortar, and everything was perfectly black. 
When it cleared away I found myself looking like a 
black man. 

" A most awful sight met my eyes. We climbed 
over the ruins of the buildings blocking the streets, and 
we saw the population that had escaped from the 
houses on their knees crying. Mothers were hugging 
their little children and weeping. People were rushing 


wildly about looking for their relatives. Others were 
on their knees, some lying prone on their faces, crying 
to Our Lord to be merciful and save them. I helped 
to drag a few people from under the ruins, and then 
made my way to the Club. 

" To my dismay I found it was almost demolished. 
The roof had fallen in, and the dining-room in which 
we had lunched was a mass of ruins, being full of 
bricks and stone. Then I met a young fellow, hatless 
and coatless, with a handkerchief tied round his head. 
I could not at first make out who it was talking 
to me. Something then struck me, and I asked, 
' Are you Gerald Loder ? ' and he said, ' Yes.' Of 
course he was a very old friend of mine, having sat 
with me in the House of Commons for several years. 
He took me round to the back of the building and 
showed me a poor fellow who had been pinned under 
a huge pillar. It was impossible to extricate him. 
His young and pretty wife threw herself on his dead 
body and embraced him. She was gently raised, 
but her dress was covered with his blood. Her reason 
had fled, and the utterances of strong men were choked 
in trying to express to her their sympathy. Three 
days after the poor lady, a great favourite, had not 

" At the same time, on the parapet of the second 
floor, we saw the oldest member of the Club. We 
assisted him down with a ladder. He, like Mr Gerald 
Loder, had been writing in the writing-room when 
the roof fell in. Mr Loder's escape was marvellous. 
The chair in which he was sitting saved his life. The 
roof fell in and by some means his coat was pinned to 
the chair, and he could not get out without leaving 
his coat behind. 

" Another remarkable incident took place. A lady 
passenger in our steamer had gone to her dressmaker's 
to have a new dress tried on for the Governor's Ball. 
It was on the second floor of the dressmaker's, and she 


had just got off the old dress to have the new one 
tried on, when the earthquake took place. She jumped 
through the window into a tree, and thus saved her 
life. The dressmaker was killed. 

" Most of our party, all Members of Parliament, with 
the exception of one, were at the Myrtle Bank Hotel. 
It was lucky I did not go. I believe nearly 20 people 
were killed there. 

" That night I made my way to Constant Spring 
Hotel, a few miles out of Kingston. The scene there 
beggared description. The ladies, who had been 
taking their afternoon rest, rushed out into the open 
wrapped in blankets or anything they could get 
hold of. I managed to get my baggage from my room, 
the roof of which had fallen in, and we slept in the open 
air that night without any covering. Next to me 
was Mr Arnold Forster, M.P., with his wife and boy. 
The hotel staff were very kind to us, and kept bringing 
tea and fruit to us during the night. 

" It was a long night. An hour before dawn, about 
four o'clock, I saw a most beautiful sight. Just 
above the line of fire, which was distinctly visible 
blazing all night at Kingston, was the Southern Cross, 
standing like a beautiful sentinel over the stricken 
city with its thousands of homeless people. It was 
a most impressive and touching sight. I have seen 
the constellation of the Southern Cross in Australia, 
but I had never before seen it looking so sadly beautiful 
as this. 

" Next morning I drove into Kingston and saw the 
true extent of the destruction. An extraordinary 
spectacle was presented by the inner walls of a 
house being left standing, the outer walls having fallen 
away ; and on every wall could be seen pictures, 
potraits and paintings, making a curious feature amid 
the scene of desolation, yet so painfully eloquent of 
the ruin that had been wrought among the homes 
of the people. 


" When I got to our ship, I found 220 patients who 
had been brought on board from the shore. All 
night long the ship's doctor a wonderful young 
fellow had been taking off limbs and attending to the 
injuries of the wounded. Seventeen dead people were 
carried from the ship, which has been well described 
as a ' shambles.' The whole of the decks were covered 
with blood. And this is the ship the Americans 
complained so bitterly that the captain would not allow 
them to take refuge on. We ourselves were not 
allowed to go on board ; we had to go inland and camp 
out in the open. We did not know until the day 
after we left that five seamen were buried in the 
ruins, although it was known that four of our passengers 
who went out with us and were to return by the ship 
had met their deaths. 

" The Governor, Sir Alexander Swettenham, was 
all the night long among the wounded ; and his wife, 
a most magnificent woman, was at the temporary 
hospital making tea and soup, and preparing bandages 
for the injured people. 

" Some American war-ships came into the British 
harbour at Kingston immediately after the earth- 
quake. My oldest friend once said to me in Australia, 
' Would you rather have in your employ a fool or 
a rogue ? ' His Excellency the Governor of Jamaica 
would probably answer the latter, to-day. Sir 
Alexander had been working night and day for 48 
hours, and threw himself down to sleep for a few hours 
on Thursday morning after the earthquake. It was 
while he was asleep that his police inspector invited 
or accepted the invitation of the American Admiral 
to land an armed force in Jamaica. You may 
imagine the horror of the Governor, knowing the feel- 
ing unjust feeling certainly prevailing among the 
poor, ignorant people of Jamaica, at finding what had 
been done and how the action would be misunderstood. 
He hurried to the Admiral and explained the situation. 


The Admiral said his honour was also concerned, and 
to satisfy their consciences or save their ' faces ' 
it was agreed to withdraw the armed force in two hours. 
But in addition to this, letters were written, unwise 
letters, and letters never intended for publication, 
and I have no excuse for them. But this I know, 
there would have been a riot among the negroes if 
the American armed force had remained on land 
for 48 hours. It is most deplorable, and I am heartily 
glad peace was made with the United States authorities, 
who, I believe, have no designs on our possessions in 
the West Indies." 

Lady Henniker Heaton was in England at the 
time of the earthquake, and her anxiety was 
truly great until the welcome cable reached her from 
Jamaica : " Safe and well." On the return of the 
' Port Kingston," she went down to Bristol to meet 
her husband in the early morning. Many of the 
passengers carried in their faces the memory of the 
terrible scenes they had witnessed, and some of them 
returned having left behind all that was dearest to 
them on earth. 

Shortly afterwards, H. H. received a post card from 
a friend giving the biblical account of an earthquake, 
and asking if it tallied with his own experience. It 
was identical : "A great and strong wind rent the 
mountains and brake in pieces the rocks : and after 
the wind an earthquake : and after the earthquake a 
fire : and after the fire a still small voice." There 
was something mystical in the utter stillness of 
the night of the earthquake when they lay awake 
under the stars. Something not of the earth, when 
a prophetic ear might yet have heard the " still small 


H. H. had some strange stories to tell of the curious 
sights he had seen. Like all great tragedies it was 
not without a touch of comedy. One little incident 
will serve. It happened that immediately before the 
earthquake the proprietor of some hotel had taken 
the manager into the garden and given him a month's 
notice. No sooner had the words, " I shall not require 
your services any longer," fallen from his lips than 
the entire building collapsed in a heap. " Evidently 
not ! " replied the manager, beneath a pile of 

In 1910, H. H. and his family broke fresh ground 
by visiting South America that modern Tod Tiddler's 
ground where men may pick up gold and silver even 
unto this year of grace. The reasons that guided this 
choice were rather amusing. H. H. had been greatly 
diverted by hearing one of Kipling's songs. 

" Oh, weekly from Southampton 
Great steamers white and gold, 
Go rolling down to Rio 
(Roll really down to Rio), 
And I'd like to roll to Rio, 
Some day before I'm old ..." 

When therefore the doctor who was attending 
Lady Heaton made a tentative suggestion of a winter 
voyage in South America, it was hailed with enthu- 
siasm. Sir Owen Philips, the Chairman of the Royal 
Mail Steamers best and kindest of friends and most 
popular of Members on both sides of the House- 
smoothed the way, and one rainy morning H. H. set 
sail in a " great steamer white and gold " for South 
America. The mixture of nationalities on board 
baffles description. There were men from every corner 
of the globe, all bent on doubling or tripling their not 


inconsiderable fortunes. There was a fair sprinkling 
of youthful - looking Scotch engineers, who appeared 
to be drawing princely salaries until one under- 
stood something of the cost of living in South 

Rio Harbour proved all and more than its admirers 
claimed for it. It enabled H. H. to join that fortunate 
company who can boast of having seen the three most 
beautiful harbours in the world Sydney, Yokohama, 
and Rio. 

In Buenos Ayres, H. H. and Lady Heaton were 
entertained to luncheon at the Jockey Club by Mr 
Hicks Beach, the First Secretary at the British Lega- 
tion, a nephew of the famous Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer. It was a much harassed Postmaster-General, 
bombarded by " reforms " by H. H. on one side, and 
refused supplies by Sir Michael Hicks Beach on the 
other, who described himself as between the devil and 
the deep blue sea. " I refer to the Right Honourable 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer as the sapphirine 
ocean." During his short stay, H. H. had very little 
time to explore the country ; but he was much im- 
pressed by all he saw and heard of its prosperity. 
Naturally, he found many points of comparison 
between the pastural and agricultural aspects of South 
America and Australia. For the emigrant with no 
capital but plenty of energy he thought Australia 
offered the best prospects, but for the man with some 
capital to invest he thought the Argentine would 
yield quicker results. 

As I have said, it was H. H.'s custom to visit 
Australia every few years, spending any time between 
three days and three weeks in Sydney. The mail- 
boats always stop at least twelve hours at Ceylon, 


and to Ceylon he always returned with the greatest 
enjoyment. The exquisite beauty of the island was 
a favourite theme of his. He felt it an injustice that 
the gentle brown creatures who ministered in so ex- 
cellent a fashion to one's comfort should be described 
in the well-known hymn as " vile." 

On his last visit to the Island, H. H. and his daughter 
lunched at Government House with the newly 
appointed Governor, Sir Robert Chalmers, who had 
invited an interesting party to meet them. After 
luncheon Sir Robert showed them a beautiful banyan- 
tree in the garden. The banyan-tree throws out 
downward shoots from its spreading branches, which 
take root in the ground and support the parent tree 
in its old age. Sir Robert told his guests that this was 
always shown to little Cingalese children as an example 
for them to follow. 

They returned on board with great armfuls of 
exquisite smelling temple - flowers, and masses of 
scarlet blossom from the gardens of Government 

On this last visit, H. H. greatly missed his friend, 
Sir Hugh Clifford, who after distinguished services 
in Ceylon had been transferred as Governor of the 
Gold Coast. Some time before H. H. had had the 
pleasure of meeting Lady Clifford, formerly Mrs 
Henry de la Pasture, and always spoke regretfully 
of so much brilliance and charm being lost to 

It has not been possible to enumerate the many 
voyages H. H. made backwards and forwards to 
Australia ; but after the trip just mentioned he 
received a letter of congratulation from Joseph 
Chamberlain : 



You must have had a most interesting tour and 
I congratulate you on having the time and spirit to 
undertake it. I thank you for carrying the messages 
of goodwill to me from my colonial fellow subjects. 
I do, as you say, feel very much their kindness, which 
in present circumstances is even more welcome than 

I am still getting better and my medical advisers 
assure me and themselves of my ultimate ability to 
take my share of work, but for the present I must still 
keep out of public life and take an amount of rest 
which may be good for my illness, but which is cer- 
tainly very hard upon my stock of patience. Later 
on I will let you know how I proceed and I hope that 
I may see you and other friends whom I am at present 
rather keeping back, as I so far trust the assurance 
of my doctors that I believe in a comparatively short 
time I shall be much better than I am now. 

Yours truly, 


During H. H.'s voyages to and from Australia, 
Marconi very generously placed at his disposal the 
wireless service on board. Every morning the news 
of the world was flashed across the great ocean, and 
at breakfast the daily bulletin was laid on H. H/s 

On the morning of April i7th, 1912, while in the 
Indian Ocean, the terrible news of the disaster to the 
" Titanic " was received : 




R.M.S. "MALOJA." ijth April 1912. 

News received direct from Fremantle Station. 

A message received from Halifax says : 

The " Titanic " is entirely lost 

The s.s. " Virginian " reports that although she was 
called by Wireless she arrived too late 

The s.s. " Carpathian " has picked up life boats con- 
taining 675 passengers 

It is generally conceded that there are no survivors other 
than the 675 as first reported 

Estimated death roll 2403 

For such lives as were saved the undying gratitude 
of two nations went out to Marconi. His marvellous 
invention enabled the devoted heroism of the Marconi 
operator, Mr John Phillips, to send out cries for help 
from the sinking ship, which were heard and answered 
by the s.s. " Carpathian " and other vessels. 

It was during H. H.'s visit to Sydney in 1912 that 
a presentation was made to him of an illuminated 
address and a gold and silver inkstand mounted on 
Australian blackwood. The lid was inlaid with penny 
stamps of Canada, New Zealand, India, New South 
Wales, and South Africa ; beneath this there was the 
inscription : " Presented to Sir John Henniker Heaton 
as a souvenir from the citizens of the Commonwealth 
of Australia." 

The address was as follows : 







We, the undersigned citizens of the Common- 
wealth desire to express to you our sincere congratu- 
lations for the long, arduous, and heroic fight you have 
made for Imperial Penny Postage throughout the 

From your first speech in the British Parliament 
in 1886 till the adoption of Penny Postage in the 
Commonwealth last year, you have never failed or 
flagged in your unselfish devotion to this great principle. 

You have had to fight against vested interests, 
prejudices, and apathy, and have often stood almost 
alone, but now, having triumphed, we thank you for 
your magnificent work. 

Your name will be associated with our postal system 
in the future along with that of Sir Rowland Hill, 
and it will shine ever more brightly as the generations 
of men come and go. 

We are glad the British Government has recognized 
the merit of your great services, and has granted you 
a Baronetcy in your life, as too often our greatest 
reformers are only recognized after death. That you 
may be long spared to enjoy the honour so nobly won 
is the desire of 

Yours faithfully, 

Governor-General of Australia. 

In reply to a letter from H. H., describing his 
enjoyable visit to Australia, Lord Jersey wrote, from 
Middleton Park, Bicester, November 3rd, 1912 : 



A letter from you rouses many pleasant re- 
collections, and increases my regret that I cannot 
join in those cheerful chats and stories at the Carl ton 
Club with their soupgon of lively spices. I am 
getting on fairly well, but have to avoid much exertion. 

People go such a pace nowadays I am not al- 
luding only to motors that it requires more strength 
and energy than I possess to keep up with them. 

One thing is quite certain that your work will 
never be omitted from the record of human develop- 
ment, and even the appreciation of Dukes and Cardinals 
will not outweigh that of the masses of humble people 
who have derived benefit therefrom. 

You will be interested to know that my younger 
son has just visited Australia, and I am much gratified 
by the kind way in which he has been welcomed by 
my old friends. It has greatly touched Lady Jersey 
and myself. 

We realize once more the warmth of Australian 
hospitality and friendship. Now I hope that you 
are getting on well and that you and Lady Heaton are 
in good health. 

Yours sincerely, 


In May 1913 H. H. made his last voyage. 

The voyage to Australia out and home was achieved 
without any special incident to mark it. At Adelaide 
he took a final leave of his old friend Sir Samuel Way, 
Chief Justice and acting-Governor of South Australia. 
To all who know Sir Samuel Way, it is unnecessary to 
add any praise of his unfailing kindness and goodness 
of heart. Although Sir Samuel was only just recover- 
ing from a serious illness, he insisted on meeting H. H. 
and Lady Heaton at the station and driving them to 
his house. At luncheon he told a story of his favourite 


little step-grandson. Madame Melba was expected to 
tea, and before her arrival Sir Samuel explained to 
the little boy that he was about to see the greatest 
singer in the world, and he must be very good and 
quiet. Little five-year-old replied, " I don't care, 
I don't want to see her and I shan't be good." Shortly 
after this Madame Melba arrived and wishing to please 
the children she sang a few golden notes. She had 
not got very far when she was interrupted by a small 
boy standing in front of her and peering down her 
throat. " Have you a bird in your jroat ? " he in- 
quired anxiously. Madame Melba declared this the 
prettiest compliment she had ever been paid. 

In Sydney H. H. watched the arrival of the 
Australian Navy as it steamed majestically into Sydney 
Harbour, where Admiral Sir George Patey took over 
the Command of Australian waters from Sir George 
King Hall. 

The town was en jete and a magnificent ball was 
given to the fleet by His Excellency Sir Gerald and 
Lady Edeline Strickland. A reception was given 
in the Town Hall to the officers of H.M.A.S. " Sydney," 
commanded by Captain John Glossop, which was the 
occasion of the presentation of a beautiful ship's 
bell from the citizens. Sailors are notorious for the 
shortness of their public speeches, and Captain Glossop's 
reply was no exception. He spoke of the sacrifices 
Australians had made for their Navy. " Some have 
given their sons, some have given their daughters, 
but you have given us the belle of Sydney." 

How little anyone thought that the " Sydney " 
and her captain would so soon see active service and 
gain the undying distinction of sinking the " Emden." 

The visit of the British Parliamentary party was 


another opportunity for rejoicings and the Governor 
gave a ball, the brilliance of which surpassed if anything 
the other. 

H. H. left Sydney in November 1913, and he and 
Lady Heaton went on to the South of France for the 
winter. From Nice he was recalled to London for 
the duty of giving his younger daughter in marriage 
to Major Adrian Porter, King's Messenger. 

At the wedding, his old friends were delighted 
to see him looking so well after his long absence from 
England ; and he spoke of wintering the following 
year in the West Indies but when the time came he 
had taken the Last Voyage of all. 



" // thou be made the master of a feast lift not thyself up but be among them 
as one of the rest take diligent care for them and so sit down. 

"And when thou hast done all thy office take thy place, that thou mayest be 
merry with them and receive a crown for thy well ordering of the feast." 

Ecclesiasticus . 

ACCORDING to "Who's Who," "playing 
chess and collecting books " were H. H.'s 
forms of recreation ; but both these were as 
naught compared with his love of entertain- 
ing. To see his friends and make them known to his 
other friends at a luncheon, dinner, or breakfast-party 
was a never-failing source of joy to him. His breakfast- 
parties after a morning swim at the Bath Club were 
almost an institution, and he had scant patience with 
lie-abeds unequal to such exertions. It was in vain 
a certain famous K.C. brought statistics to prove 
that " 90 per cent, of the prisoners in our jails spring 
from the class that habitually rises before 8 a.m.," 
and that, on another occasion, Dean Wace of Canter- 
bury, refusing a breakfast invitation, shook his head, 
quoting reprovingly, " Early risers are conceited in 
the morning and stupid in the afternoon." 

At one of these breakfast-parties Mark Twain 
told a curious story. The talk had been of " coin- 
cidences," and Mark Twain spoke of an adventure he 
had experienced as a young man. He was walking 
in some town, when he espied what he called a " peach 



of a girl." Being very young and very ardent, he 
followed her at a respectful distance to see where she 
lived. Almost immediately she turned into a house 
and the door shut behind her. Mark Twain felt he 
must make some excuse to see her again or find out 
something about her, so plucking up courage he rang 
boldly at the door. 

It was opened by the young lady herself. 

" Does Mr John William Gregory live here ? ' 
asked Mark Twain, inventing the first name that came 
into his head. 

" Yes, he does," was the unexpected answer. 
' You don't say ! " ejaculated Mark Twain, as he 
fled from the house in a frenzy of astonishment. 

It was once H. H.'s fortune to be chairman of a 
dinner given to his friend Mark Twain. By some 
curious mental aberration the guest chosen to propose 
the health of Mark Twain made a long speech lasting 
half an hour and finally sat down, having never once 
mentioned his name. Mark Twain rose to reply : 

" Gentlemen, I'm very sorry I've only brought 
one speech with me to-night, and as it doesn't seem 
to suit the occasion I guess I'll sit down. I made 
sure that gentleman was going to say what a fine fellow 
I was and how honoured you all felt at having me and 
that America should be proud of her son ; and in 
reply I was going to say I was quite overcome by such 
praise, far, far exceeding my deserts, and I was a 
modest man, and he had made me blush, and I should 
never forget his words and carry them back to America 
in my heart, and so on. Well, gentlemen, I can't 
think up another speech in a hurry, and speaking for 
myself, I'm very sorry not to deliver that one, because 
it was a real good speech and you would have liked 

AS A HOST 105 

This impromptu was greeted with roars of laughter, 
and any awkwardness that might have been caused 
by the contretemps was entirely swept away by 
Mark Twain's bonhomie. 

" I have dined in all quarters of the world : I 
have eaten clam and canvas back in New York, I 
have sipped Sake' in Tokio, I have munched junk at 
sea and drunk debatable water in the tropics," wrote 
H. H. describing his experiences ; and again, " Dining 
as a fine art concerns rather the ear than the tongue," 
which is after all exactly what the witty old lady 
meant when she said, " It isn't the menu that matters, 
it's the men you sit next to." 

The ideal dinner was a subject H. H. was fond of 
discussing, and he embodied his views in a light essay, 
wherefrom the gourmet will learn little but the lover 
of good company find much food for thought. 

" A company of mutes hired to mourn over the 
joint and bird," was a description that could never be 
applied to one of H. H.'s parties, and it is pleasing to 
feel that such obsequies have become almost a thing 
of the past. I have said that H. H. was not a good 
platform speaker, but he had a very happy gift of after- 
dinner speaking and some rare flash of wit or anecdote 
could be counted on. He was Vice-President, if not 
President, of a club formed for the purpose of limiting 
speeches to ten minutes, whose members, be it said, 
were greatly sought after. 

Sunday luncheon-parties in Eaton Square brought 
together such pleasant company as went far to attain 
Disraeli's concept : "A little dinner, not more than 
the Muses, with all the guests clever and some pretty." 

In the old days, when Lord Russell of Killovren 
was a constant visitor, his brilliance and rich store 


of anecdotes alone made such gatherings memorable. 
Another Irish Chief Justice, Lord Killanin better 
known as Judge Morris famous for his stories and 
brogue, shed his wit at these parties in a manner never 
to be forgotten. It is regrettable that the telling of 
anecdotes has somewhat gone out of vogue, and the 
younger generation will never know how such jewels 
sparkled in the hands of the lapidary. Who having 
heard can forget Lord Killanin telling his inimitable 
tales of legal life, among them the story of a poor 
Irishman about to be tried for moonlighting and his 
indignation when his counsel asked him what defence 
he wished to make ? " An' is ut a difince ye'd be 
afther havin' me make ? Shure an don't I be tellin' 
ye the foreman of the jury is me cousin Mike O'Grady 
begorrah, that's me difince ! ' 

A breakfast-party in the House of Commons on 
Coronation morning was an unusual form of enter- 
tainment. Host and guests in full levee dress at that 
early hour made a remarkable spectacle, which was 
further accentuated by peers, trailing clouds of glory, 
hurrying across to the Abbey. After breakfast Marconi 
and H. H. were photographed together on the Terrace 
by Sir Benjamin Stone. The portrait appeared in the 
Italian papers with the inscription : " His Majesty King 
Edward of England and Signor Guglielmo Marconi." 

H. H. " liked a link," and felt a genuine pleasure 
when he found himself introducing two friends, " Body ' ' 
and " Soul " by name, and thus forestalling the Last 
Day ; and again when he had two Crimean veterans 
at the House, and introduced Colonel F. to the late 
General Sir Harry Rhodes Green with a cheery, " Well, 
I suppose you last met in the trenches before Sevas- 
topol ! " And so they had ! 


Photograph l>y Sir Benjamin Stone 

AS A HOST 107 

When the summer-time came, H. H. was always 
one of the first to give tea on the Terrace, and almost 
every day throughout the season he would give de- 
lightful informal parties. The Terrace of the House 
has rightly earned the reputation of being the coolest 
place in London, and a fresh breeze may be found there 
on the hottest days of June. 

There was one especially amusing afternoon when 
the American Ambassador, Mr Whitelaw Reid, and 
his daughter, Mrs John Ward, brought Mr and Mrs 
Nicholas Longworth the latter better known as Miss 
Alice Roosevelt. 

Directly she came on the Terrace, H. H. took her 
aside and said : 

' There is a very grave matter I think it right to 
mention to you before taking tea. You know we never 
form a Government in this country without putting 
an American girl in it for instance, Mrs Chamberlain, 
Lady Harcourt, and the Duchess of Marlborough. Well, 
all patriotic people in the country hoped and believed 
you would have put aside your own selfish love matters, 
and married Mr Balfour. With your father as 
President of the United States, and your husband as 
Prime Minister of Great Britain and Ireland, peace and 
goodwill would be assured. In place of that you have 
neglected a great patriotic duty." 

Mrs Longworth pretended to look deeply perturbed : 

"Oh, dear, I never thought of it," and whispered, 
as she glanced towards her husband, " 7s it too late ? " 

H. H. replied : " We will see. However, come to 

He placed her next her old friend Mr Marconi, 
who had of course seen a great deal of the Roosevelts 
on his various visits to America. 


The moral of H. H.'s lecture was gracefully pointed 
by the arrival of Mr Winston Churchill, the brilliant 
son of a brilliant American mother, and a great English 
statesman. Strawberries and cream were handed 
round, and after tea there were beautiful roses for the 
ladies as the party broke up amid laughter and pleasant 

H. H. very greatly enjoyed the informal gatherings 
which took place at Carlsbad, where he went yearly 
for the cure. One day the talk turned, as was not 
unnatural, on Postal Reform. H. H. told his listeners 
that he had always advocated a measure enabling the 
writer of a letter to get it back before it was delivered 
if he could prove to the postmaster that he was the 

H. H. instanced a case of a friend of his who had 
inadvertently posted a letter, from abroad, to his 
wife, which contained expressions of very warm regard 
and was really intended for a lady he had recently 
met. Realizing his mistake, he hurried to the post- 
master to get the letter back but was met with refusal. 
In a great state of agitation he telegraphed to his 
wife : " Have posted a letter to you by mistake, 
earnestly hope you will return it to me unopened as it 
would cause us both great unhappiness." H. H. asked 
his friend what had happened. " My wife was a 
brick," he said, " and sent back the letter, but it cost 
me a diamond bracelet to put it right with her ! " 

" I wonder," asked H. H., " what these ladies 
present would have done ? ' 

Elinor Glyn said she would write a book with 
two endings, showing what would happen if the letter 
was returned and if it was opened. 

" I would send back the letter unopened, but it 

AS A HOST 109 

would br-reak my heart," an Italian lady gave her 
views prettily. 

" Of course I should open it, and so would every 
one else ! " an Englishwoman said. 

" I might send the letter back, but I guess I'd 
use a steam-kettle first/' an American girl said. 

Father Bernard Vaughan, who was also present, 
was petitioned to preach a sermon on the right thing 
to do under the circumstances. 

Father Bernard Vaughan was to be met at Lady 
Doughty 's luncheon-parties in Buckingham Gate, 
where the conversation was always full of wit and 
good-humoured badinage. One day there was a young 
guardsman present who was obliged to leave early 
in order to catch a train down to the country. He 
was greatly alarmed at the possibility of losing the 
train and bade farewell to his hostess in much per- 
turbation. Father Bernard Vaughan turned to Lady 
Doughty : 

" I hope that young man is as concerned for 
Eternity as he is for Time." 

Mr Marconi was one of H. H.'s closest friends, 
and they saw each other almost daily for many years. 
H. H. stood as godfather to pretty little Degnia 
Marconi, and was a great admirer of his fairy-like little 

Some years ago H. H. and Marconi were dining 
at the Savage Club, and were greatly entertained by 
some " imitations " of well-known actors given by 
one of the members. In particular they were struck 
by the perfect imitation of Sir Herbert Tree as Richard 
III, who in his well known fits of absent-mindedness 
occasionally passed his hand across his brow, in- 
quiring : " What play is this ? Ah, yes, ' Richard 
III ' ; ah, thank you." 


When the imitations were over H. H. thought it 
would be amusing to go off to see the original, so he 
and Marconi drove to the Hay market. Between the 
acts a note came round asking them to go to Sir 
Herbert's dressing-room, where they had a most 
interesting and witty talk, which was interrupted 
by a loud knocking at the door by the call-boy. Sir 
Herbert turned to Marconi with his familiar gesture. 
" Tell me," he said, " what is the play ? " 
" ' Richard III,' " replied Marconi. 
" Ah, thank you, thank you," said Sir Herbert, 
as he made his farewells. 

H. H. had a great many friends among dramatists 
and musicians. Sir Arthur Sullivan, who was dining 
with him one night, amused the company by de- 
scribing a recent tour through America where one 
town turned out en jtte to welcome him. The streets 
were decorated and he was met by a band. He felt 
extremely flattered at receiving such a welcome in 
the Wild West, until he learnt that he had been mis- 
taken for Sullivan the prize-fighter, " the Sullivan " 
as the local editor put it. 

In those days it was a popular saying that Sir 
Arthur Sullivan could never remember the numbers 
of his friends' town residences but always told the 
cabman : "I don't know the number but the door- 
knocker is B flat." 

Colonial Governors were frequently among H. H.'s 
guests at the House of Commons, and he enjoyed 
nothing more than listening to the news they brought 
of the political and industrial progress of our far- 
flung dependencies. 

One night the late Duke of Argyll, ex-Governor 
of Canada, and Lord Ranfurly, ex-Governor of New 


Zealand, were among a small party, and as was perhaps 
not remarkable under the circumstances the talk 
turned on the preponderance of people of Scotch descent 
in those two colonies and the number of high offices 
held by Scotchmen. 

" I yield to no one," said H. H., " in my respect 
to Scotland, but I have felt compelled to join the Royal 
Society of St George of England in order to protect 
our own interests. In this House of Commons we 
have Scotchmen as Prime Minister (Campbell Banner- 
man) ; Leader of the Opposition (Balfour) ; First Lord 
of the Admiralty (Tweedmouth) ; First War Lord 
(Haldane) ; and President of the Board of Education 
(M'Kenna). All the leading bankers are Scotchmen, 
and most of the great ship-owners." 

The Duke of Argyll as a great Imperialist had 
given his continuous support to the agitation for 
Imperial Penny Postage ever since 1887, when he 
wrote : "I hope you will hammer away at the project, 
and I believe you will find it ultimately adopted." 

When, in 1905, H. H. again approached the Duke 
on the subject of Universal Penny Postage the project 
did not enlist his sympathy, and he replied : 


No. I don't want to kiss all the world. 
The Empire is enough for me in the matter of 
Penny Post. 

Believe me, 

Yours truly, 


Poets, painters, and novelists were all made welcome 
at H. H.'s hospitable table ; in fact, anyone of dis- 
tinction in any walk of life was sure to be met there 


sooner or later. His dinner-parties at the House of 
Commons were always rather informal affairs, and his 
table had a way of expanding in a telescopic fashion 
as the dinner proceeded. 

Young hostesses given to panic by the non- 
appearance of expected, or appearance of non-ex- 
pected guests, might well learn a lesson from Lady 
H. H.'s undisturbed serenity when met in the Lobby 
with the information that " the Chinese Minister is 
coming, and an Arctic explorer, and the Postmaster- 
General said he would come if he could, and also some 
friends whose names I cannot recall at the moment ! " 

It was never H. H.'s way to make elaborate plans 
for the right people being asked to meet each other, 
but such was the force of his genial personality that 
the most incongruous company would meet together 
and exchange views with the greatest cordiality. 

Mr Justin M'Carthy's reply to an invitation 
given in 1910 : 


I could not tell you how much I feel touched 
by your most kind invitation and how much sincere 
regret it gives me that I am not able to accept it. 
You will already have heard from my daughter the 
full explanations of the reasons why I cannot even 
think of becoming a guest at your proposed dinner 
in the House of Commons. There is no entertainment 
I should enjoy more than a House of Commons dinner, 
and there is no man living from whom I should welcome 
such a kindness more cordially than from yourself. 
But Charlotte has told you that I have for many 
years lived as one absolutely withdrawn from social 
as well as 'from public life, and although I am getting 
on very well in my course of improvement, I have 
yet some dreary path of self-protection to plod along 

AS A HOST 113 

before I can hope to be a live man among the living. 
But I strongly hope that we shall meet again many 
times in this life, dear old friend and true friend, 
and interchange genial memories and consequences. 
Ever, my dear Henniker Heaton, 

Your old friend and comrade, 


It was always a pleasure when the late Mr Moberly 
Bell manager of " The Times " could be persuaded 
to join H. H.'s parties. His massive head with the 
penetrating kindly eyes gave him an appearance 
which did not belie the great intellect, courageous 
and just, that governed " The Times " for so many years. 
When released from the cares of office, his humour 
and gentle irony made him the most popular of 
guests. He arrived late for dinner at the House one 
night, having been sitting on the Commission for 
amending the Divorce Laws. In the middle of the 
proceedings it seemed that Lady Frances Balfour 
had handed him a sheaf of papers saying : 

" Please take care of these for me, I haven't a 

" What ! " exclaimed Moberly Bell in a loud 
voice. " You haven't a pocket and you want a vote 
God bless my soul ! " 

H. H. spoke of his interest in the Divorce Com- 
mission, as some years previously he had caused to 
be issued a Parliamentary paper giving the laws of 
Marriage and Divorce in all countries of the world. 
The paper showed that the cheapest country in which 
to get married was Belgium (2^d.), and the easiest 
place in which to get a divorce was Japan, where a 
husband could obtain his freedom if his wife talked 
too much. This came as rather a surprise, as it was 


generally thought the United States made the marriage 
laws the least binding. Wilfrid Meynell summed this 
up best in his oft-quoted lines : 


" It really is a little odd 
If marriage has been sent by God 

Above our human Fates, 
To see Divorces all the same 
In that great Continent whose name 
Affirms United States. 

America, dear Continent, 

If continent you be, 
Why let a knot that's tied in heaven 

Be loosed in Tennessee ? 
Be careful lest in mock you're given 

The title of ' the Free.' " 

If H. H. enjoyed telling a good story himself, he 
was not less appreciative of anyone else's, and his hearty 
infectious laugh was the best tribute. It was some- 
times rather amusing to see the twinkle in his eyes 
when he listened to a friend " fathering " some little 
orphan anecdote. 

Hardly a day passed without his being sought 
out by some unknown visitor from foreign shores 
anxious for introductions or some such help, and it is 
not too much to say that H. H. never in his life turned 
a deaf ear to any appeal if it was in his power to help 
in any way. " For many years it has been my settled 
conviction that Sir John was the most consistently 
kind-hearted man I ever met in my life. I have met 
many benevolent people in my life," wrote Mr Snead- 
Cox, " but never anyone who was so ready as he was 
to take personal trouble to do a kindness to others." 

1 From " Verses and Reverses," published by Herbert & Daniel. 

AS A HOST 115 

One day many years ago, when H. H. was in the 
Carlton Club, he was told a strange-looking man was 
asking for him on important business. He went 
down to the hall and was told a truly surprising tale 
of adventure by the stranger, whose name happened 
to be Louis de Rougemont. H. H. immediately sat 
down and scribbled the following note to Sir George 
Newnes : 


I am sending you the most interesting man 
in the world or the biggest liar in the universe in 
either case he will be equally useful to you. 


H. H. 

Two hours later back came an answer from Sir 
George Newnes : 

DEAR H. H., 

You have sent us an angel unawares. 

G. N. 

The subsequent history of the Angel unawares 
is too well known to be rewritten. 

Perhaps H. H. realized more fully than anyone 
how much heart-burning is caused by the neglect of 
English people to return the hospitality they have 
received so generously when travelling abroad and in 
the Colonies. This neglect is more often due to want 
of thought than deliberate intention. So many people 
imagine that some one else is sure to be looking after 
the visitors and they need not concern themselves on 
their behalf, but H. H. would take personal trouble 
to make their visit as enjoyable as possible, not only 
by asking interesting people to meet them but by 


doing his best to make sure that their services to the 
Empire were recognized in the right quarters. No 
one was more generous than himself in the appreciation 
of the work done by others, in distant unknown parts 
of the Empire nor more alive to the fact of how easily 
these services are forgotten in the rush of London life. 




CHOUGH of necessity a great deal away 
from home, H. H. was devoted to his wife 
and children. He very much enjoyed 
home gatherings, and always took the 
keenest interest in the sayings and doings of each 
member of his family. The love that existed between 
H. H. and his wife, and his tender care of her during 
many years of delicate health, was very touching to 
witness. Theirs was literally a married life that 
had never known a shadow of a shade of discord as 
far as their mutual relations were concerned. 

H. H. was always a sympathetic listener to what- 
ever his children had to tell him, and those who knew 
him only as an impatient critic and antagonist would 
marvel to see the patience he brought to bear in 
listening to some childish recital of adventure. In 
later years, when his own family grew up, he 
transferred some of his affection to his small grand- 
children. It was rather a charming picture to see 
the Postal Reformer, with his arms folded on the 
table, listening attentively to a small and incoherent 
grandson struggling with a " funny story." 

" By Jove, old man, you astound me ! '* would 
be H. H.'s comment, when the little lad with bursts 
of glee had reached the climax of his old, old " funny 

H. H., who had a remarkable memory in many 



ways, was never able to distinguish one flower from 
another. As a general rule, he used the generic term 
" roses " for anything that was brightly coloured. 
The nursery-party were considerably enlivened one 
day by the receipt of a picture postcard of some hand- 
painted flowers. " My dear little Lily, I send you this 
card to remind you of your pretty namesakes." The 
flowers were violets ! 

H. H. was a great raconteur, even in his own home 
circle, and he took as much trouble to make a dinner- 
table story amusing when his wife and children only 
were present as he did when entertaining a party of 
celebrities. His Sunday luncheon-parties in Eaton 
Square were always very joyous and interesting 
gatherings. He knew well how to draw the best out 
of every one, and his enthusiasm for his guests' attain- 
ments was always sincere. Their bons mots were 
sure to draw forth the flattering tribute of that hearty 
laugh, which was always one of his greatest charms. 

How heartily H. H. detested all want of generosity 
in speech and feeling ! The grudging praise, the be- 
littling of achievements, the want of enthusiasm that 
froze all genial intercourse, would kindle the light of 
indignation in his eyes. 

The condemnation of R. L. S. for such as 

"... moved among their race, 
And wore no glorious morning face " 

would never have fallen on H. H., who loved the simple 
pleasures of everyday life. As the years grew upon 
him, never once was he heard to regret the past as 
superior to the present. For him To-day was the 
age of miracles and, if he expressed any regret, it 
was that he would not live to see the coming glories 
of to-morrow. 

AT HOME 119 

H. H.'s method of working was the despair of 
many a secretary. Tidiness he abhorred, and was 
never happy until every chair in his library was piled 
high with books, the floor scattered with paper and 
his writing table a chaotic mass of literature. Sand- 
wiched between postal complaints and parliamentary 
Blue books would be found various ill-spelt little 
letters written in childish scrawls beginning, " I have 
brok mine horse," which H. H. could not be induced 
either to destroy or to keep in a more suitable place. 

Serious young men who require the stillness and 
silence of locked doors when they set to work on 
some intricate problem would be surprised at the 
methods of the Postal reformer in his home. He 
would go to his library after dinner to write, let us 
say, an article for " The Nineteenth Century." Passing 
the drawing-room he would listen to the music for a 
few moments, and with a special request, " Please 
leave the doors wide open so that I may hear the 
singing," he would begin his assault on the blundering 
and plundering of the post office. 

H. H. was fortunate in attaching to himself, as 
well loved friend and secretary, Edward Cant Wall 
a man of scholarly attainments and high character. 
Between H. H. and Edward Wall existed the most 
complete confidence and a depth of affection rarely 
found. Had H. H. lived to fulfil his intention of 
writing his memoirs, he would have included a high 
tribute to Mr Wall in grateful memory of his loyal 
support and valued services. 

Four sons and two daughters composed H. H.'s 
family. His eldest son, John the present holder 
of the baronetcy married the Honble. Sermonda 
Burrell, daughter of Lord Gwydyr. At the time of 


the marriage, Sermonda Burrell had two grandfathers 
living, the fourth Lord Gwydyr, who reached the age 
of 99, and Sir John Banks, the Queen's Physician in 
Ireland, who lived to be 98. Lord Gwydyr was born 
in 1810, and was present at the Coronation of George 
IV, when he saw the Hereditary Champion of England 
ride into Westminster Hall in armour and throw 
down his glove this was the last time it was done. 
He was also present at the Coronation of William 
IV and Victoria, and was for thirty years Secretary 
to his uncle, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, the Here- 
ditary Lord Great Chamberlain, and lived with him 
in the House of Lords. Although not present at the 
Coronation of Edward VII, Lord Gwydyr received 
a telegram of 100 words, answer prepaid, to know 
what was done in the robing-room at the last state 
opening of Parliament by Queen Victoria. 

H. H.'s second son, Reginald, Commander R.N. 
married Mary, daughter of the late Colonel Houstoun 
of Clerkington. Herbert, Assistant Colonial Secretary 
of Mauritus, married Phcebe, daughter of the late 
Lindsay Talbot-Crosbie of Ardfert Abbey, Co. Kerry. 
Arthur, Lt. -Commander R.N., married Vera, daughter 
of the late Hamilton Atherley. His elder daughter, 
Elizabeth Ann, married Algernon Paget, son of Berke- 
ley Paget ; and his younger daughter, Rose, married 
Major Adrian Porter, King's Messenger, son of Colonel 
Morton Porter. 

Occasionally, on Sunday evenings a family party 
would gather in the library, and H. H., while energeti- 
cally striving to keep pace with his ever-growing cor- 
respondence, would keep his sons and daughters 
amused with extracts from the various letters he kept 
pulling out of his pockets. Sometimes an important 

AT HOME 121 

paper would be missing, and then every one would be 
on their knees for an hour, emptying dispatch boxes, 
going through drawers, and generally looking in every 
likely and unlikely spot for the lost document. 

In spite of H. H.'s vigorous efforts to answer im- 
mediately every letter, one would sometimes get over- 
looked. A reproachful reminder in poetic form made 
one more example of those " cradled into poetry by 
wrong " of whom Shelley sang : 



" Our Henniker above all others seeks 

To make our Postal Correspondence better, 
And is it He who takes four mortal weeks 
To answer one short simple urgent letter ? " 


H. H. was very fond of poetry of all kinds, and 
loved to hear it read aloud if the reader had a sym- 
pathetic voice and good intonation. Talking of the 
voice, he always said that the late Canon Fleming 
was the best elocutionist in England, and he very 
much enjoyed hearing him preach at St Michael's, 
Chester Square. H. H. once found himself seated 
next to Canon Fleming at a big city dinner. The 
Canon had just pronounced grace in his low clear, 
musical voice, and had settled himself comfortably 
down to his turtle soup when a stray remark of H. H.'s 
caused him to spring from his seat, exclaiming, " Good 
gracious, I'm at the wrong dinner then ! " and off 
he flew, followed by chuckles of amusement from 
his neighbours. 

Sometimes on fine spring mornings, H. H. would 
leave his library early, and invite his daughters to 


come out with him and see some of the newest ex- 
hibitions of pictures in London : H. H did not often 
buy pictures, as his great hobby lay in collecting 
valuable old books. He possessed some extremely 
rare editions among the three thousand books in his 
library in Eaton Square. His Australian books were 
most interesting, and those which dealt with nature 
especially so, as many of them contained life-size 
illustrations of birds and flowers of the Antipodes. 

H. H. was always delighted to take his daughters 
to any interesting social function, and in his popular 
company they could scarcely fail to enjoy themselves. 
Since no picture of contemporary social life is com- 
plete without an anecdote of the brilliant American 
ambassador, Mr Joseph Choate, a somewhat unsatis- 
factory little story may be forgiven. At the Royal 
Garden party His Excellency, after chatting with 
H. H., turned to his daughters and paid them the 
prettiest compliment that has perhaps ever been 
paid to debutantes. The elder girl turned to her 
sister and said, " We will never forget that as long as 
we live " but from that moment to this neither of 
them has ever been able to recall what Mr Choate said ! 

It is but a melancholy satisfaction for them to 
feel that they were once the recipients of a yet more 
exquisite compliment than Sheridan's famous speech 
to a charming young lady : ' Will you come into 
my garden, I would like my roses to see you." 

For the greater part of his life H. H. enjoyed the 
best of health, but his ceaseless activity imposed too 
heavy a strain upon his constitution, and in 1911 he 
had a serious breakdown. A stroke of paralysis, due 
to overwork, gave cause for the gravest anxiety. Sir 
Lauder Brunton was called in, and gave warning that 

AT HOME 123 

serious results would occur unless all work were put 
on one side for some months ; with reasonable care 
and freedom from worry H. H.'s life might be pro- 
longed for many years, but he would not be able to 
stand undue excitement or strain. A verdict that 
future events were to prove only too true. The long 
weeks of convalescence were very trying to H. H., in 
spite of the kindness of friends who did everything 
possible to cheer him. The word " Postage " was 
forbidden, and only light literature was allowed. His 
chief delight was in a number of books by Pett Ridge 
sent to him by a thoughtful friend which he ever 
afterwards declared the best medicine for a sick man. 

Like many others, H. H. found compensation in 
the midst of his trials. Every day brought some 
token of kindness or remembrance. Old friends from 
the Carlton Club came to amuse him with good stories, 
and the latest gossip. Messages and wishes for a 
speedy recovery reached Lady Henniker Heaton from 
both sides of the House of Commons, and " please say 
to him a number of our Members from Ireland join 
in this wish " wrote William Redmond. 

A telegram from Sir Thomas Lipton offering H. H. 
a voyage in the " Shamrock " to recuperate was 
reluctantly declined, as involving too great a re- 
sponsiblity for his host, though the kindness was 
deeply appreciated. 

As the weather grew warmer H. H. was able to 
spend most of the day sitting under the trees in Eaton 
Square, and here by good fortune he found two little 
friends who beguiled the long hours as only children 
can do. Mercy and Mary Webbe, daughters of the 
famous cricketer, A. J. Webbe, were the centre of a party 
of children who met in the Square every morning and 


afternoon. Mercy was the first to make friends with 
H. H., her gentle sympathetic nature touched by any 
suffering. She would talk to him in her wise, gentle 
way for hours, and her clever, poetical thoughts were 
a constant source of marvel and delight to H. H. 

Shortly afterwards Mercy went down to the 
country, and her little sister Mary came upon the 
scene. Mary at this time was about seven years old ; 
a little flying figure, in a blue cotton frock under an 
enormous mushroom hat, sunburnt little face and 
hands, and the cleverest, wittiest, most mischievous 
and adorable little mite that ever came out of a fairy 
tale. She had a band of faithful followers, nearly 
all older and bigger than herself, whom she ruled with 
a rod of iron. Mary chose the game and Mary chose 
the part she would play and Mary awarded all the 
prizes and punishments. A born leader, she instantly 
recognized a kindred spirit in H. H. and they became 
fast friends. 

H. H. had been ordered complete rest and quiet, 
but Mary cared for none of these things. When he 
appeared in the Square, she would fling herself upon 
him like a small whirlwind, shout down his ear, and 
seizing his walking stick for he was still very lame- 
dance away with it to the other end of the Square 
looking like an imp of mischief. She had a most 
astonishing vocabulary for her years, and would send 
H. H. off into roars of laughter by her quaint phrase- 
ology. " I would tell you and welcome, but you are 
not to be trusted," she would reprove him when he 
begged to be allowed to share her confidence. She 
was a little lady who fully realized her own worth. 
" Good-bye," she said one evening, throwing her arms 
round H. H. ; " you won't see me again, as I'm going 

AT HOME 125 

away to-morrow." Then seeing his look of blank 
consternation she hopped round him in glee, crooking 
a tiny forefinger at him and crying, " I only said it to 
take you in I only said it to take you in." 

H. H.'s affection for his little friend inspired some 
rather charming verses : 


Come into the Square, Marie, 

Come into the garden, do, 
For sadly your ex-M.P. 

Has gazed at the gate for you. 


For under a branching tree, 
He sits on a hard green chair, 

And turns for a small Marie, 
Whenever two footsteps stir. 


Whenever a shrill young voice 
Through railing and bush vibrates; 

His look leaps up to rejoice 
To watch where a blue skirt waits. 


With mischievous eyes agleam, 
And very brown hands outheld; 

A laugh peels sharp as a scream 
And peace from the day's dispelled. 


You were missing this morning, Marie ! 

Alone on the lawn, at loss, 
Your neighbour, from under a tree, 
Hied homeward to thirty and three, 

Disheartened and cross. 



IN painting a portrait, two thoughts are upper- 
most : first, that the picture shall be as entirely 
truthful as even Cromwell himself could desire ; 
and, secondly, that the mise en scene should 
express without overshadowing the subject. Annual 
visits to the Academy show certain learned gentlemen 
with a hand laid affectionately upon a globe, if the 
sitter is a traveller, or toying with a magnifying glass, 
if he is a professor of science. Any painter can thus 
portray the objects in which his sitter is primarily 
interested, but it takes a Sargent to dispense with 
such accessories and yet leave the impress of the 
man's mind shining through his eyes, and breathing 
his spirit through each stroke of the brush. 

It has been my endeavour to show H. H. not only 
as a Postal Reformer, but in all the phases of every- 
day life, and yet I am acutely conscious that his 
character, his inmost thoughts, remain but vaguely 
expressed. Perhaps his very simplicity and trans- 
parency make the task more difficult than if one were 
analysing a profoundly complex character. 

For one who had travelled so extensively, and 
seen so many sides of life, his judgment of men was 
singularly uncritical. All his friends know the truth 
of the assertion that to his kindly mind " every goose 
was a swan," and having benefited so constantly and 



so agreeably through this mistaken conviction I feel 
peculiarly unfitted to criticize it. 

Injuries were forgiven and forgotten with the 
setting of the sun, and the perpetrator merely became 
" that poor fellow," though less amiable members 
of H. H.'s circle could doubtless have found more 
suitable designations. Like all public men, H. H. 
had his enemies ; but I think he had fewer than most. 
Some wise man once wrote you cannot be too careful 
in the choice of your enemies," but it is perhaps truer 
to say he who never made an " enemy never made 
anything else." 

His large charity went out in the words of Ian 
Maclaren, whose books he dearly loved, " Be pitiful, 
for we are all of us fighting a hard battle." Still it 
must be recorded that there was one class of mind, 
for which he had no mercy the obstructionist ic, and 
of whose ultimate destination he, at least, had no 
doubt. Sheer laziness, the generating factor of an 
Obstructionist, can defeat and overthrow the best 
laid schemes of the greatest genius. To an Obstruct- 
ionist every philanthropic movement represents but 
an extra signing of documents, every Arctic or Tropical 
Exploration means only an extra search for a mislaid 
compass, or an order for a stores catalogue. " They 
have no imagination," H. H. would say, implying 
utter and irrevocable condemnation. There was a 
curious phrase he would frequently employ when 
urging forward the Obstructionist faster along the 
" Primrose path of dalliance." " Show a little public 
spirit," was his formula, addressed indescriminately 
to governing bodies, taxi-drivers, lift-boys, and lesser 
fry who impede progress. 

H. H. could differentiate between the individual 


and the corporate Obstructionism the latter he held 
in some respect as a necessary evil used to combat 
hasty legislation. Ex-ministers and their secretaries 
will appreciate the following letter written by H. H. 
to Lord Blyth : 

" . . . I am looking forward with great interest 
to the result of your deputation to the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer and Postmaster-General. I beg to 
warn you against the stereotyped replies which you 
and I have been met with during more than a quarter 
of a century. Before the two great Cabinet Ministers 
begin to reply you will no doubt anticipate them by 
asking them not to put you off in the old and worn 
out way : 

1. / recognize the importance oj the deputation. 

2. I fully sympathize with your objects. 

3. Circumstances will not now permit. 

4. We shall when the time arrives and opportunity 

H. H. had to an extraordinary degree a personality 
that might be described as magnetic. He realized 
that in order to get any request granted it was 
only necessary for him to see the person who was 
required to do that particular thing. He had the 
greatest faith in personal interviews and no faith at 
all in the written word that probably gets no further 
than an obstructionistic (once more !) secretary. 

Literally, H. H. did not know the meaning of the 
word "No," and he took it from no one. With his 
mind centred on the achievement of some project, 
he would listen to arguments with an intolerance and 
impatience that belied his natural broad-mindedness. 
Too good a mathematician to be convinced by an 
array of figures, too keen an historian to learn from 


past errors, 1 he held on his way regardless of every 
argument and every prophecy of failure. 

His enthusiasm was one of his most noticeable 
traits, and his intense vitality showed itself nowhere 
more clearly than in the energy he threw into mastering 
whatever subject had aroused his interest. As a result, 
he was continually consulted on matters outside postal 
affairs by strangers who had heard of his wide 
sympathies. A letter advocating a project for tree- 
planting by school children would send him down to 
Kent with every offer of assistance ; a note from a 
scientist concerning an invention for testing the eye- 
sight of mariners would evoke in reply : "I know 
nothing about eyesight, but if you will breakfast with 
me to-morrow and explain your invention I will take 
you on to the Admiralty afterwards." The next 
morning over eggs and bacon H. H. and his new friend 
would discuss the subject " hammer and tongs " until 
H. H. became not less enthusiastic than the inventor. 

He was one of the first to be interested in an almost 
uncanny invention by Sir Hiram Maxim for pre- 
venting collisions at sea, and he and Marconi journeyed 
down to see the instrument tested in its early stages. 
Watching the meeting between the old Magician, 
and the young Magician, H. H. congratulated himself 
on living in the twentieth century, free from the 
charge of conspiring with sorcerers and dealers in 
black magic. 

Any question of an injustice immediately became 
his to set right promotion deferred, or a pension 
ungranted, became an all-absorbing matter until it 
was settled in the only right way. The helping hand 

1 The only thing we learn from history is that we never do learn anything 
from history. HEGEL. 



he extended to young men at the outset of their career 
brought much happiness into his own life ; and one 
likes to think of the kindness that prompted him to 
give up a large deck cabin in a crowded ship in the 
Red Sea because he had heard from the ship's doctor 
that a poor lady was lying dangerously ill in an airless 
cabin next to the heat and noise of the engine-room. 
It was a simple act of common humanity, and yet 
it had occurred to no one else on board to perform it. 

It is not easy to write of the views H. H. held on 
the deeper things of life. He did not often speak of 
his ideas regarding religion, but one knew that the 
simplest form of faith was his. He held an unquestion- 
ing belief that God was an all-loving Father from whom 
the worst of us will obtain a merciful hearing, and 
in whose presence all misunderstandings will be cleared 
up and all pettiness and wrong-thinking will fall away 
as a garment. 

" If I were a clergyman I would preach Charity, 
Charity, Charity, every Sunday of my life until at 
last people understood the meaning of the word," 
H. H. was sometimes heard to say. His favourite 
hymn was " Lead, kindly light," and those glorious 
words held for him the consolation of the whole world. 
The epitome of his life's teaching might be expressed 
in the lines of Kipling : 

" Teach us the strength that cannot seek 
By deed or thought to hurt the weak, 
That under Thee we may possess 
Man's strength to comfort man's distress. 
Teach us delight in simple things 
And mirth that has no bitter springs, 
Forgiveness free of evil done 
And love to all men 'neath the sun." 




ENNIKER HEATON was a remarkable 
example of how a man can carve out for 
himself his little niche in the world of 
politics by sheer force of character, by 
tenacity, and by a genial temper that disarms criticism 
and wins ubiquitous friendship. He was not a speaker, 
he was not a writer, and was not even much of a 
politician, and yet he made a deep mark upon his 
times, and effected more practical work than nine out 
of ten of his contemporaries in the House of Commons, 
and his death will cause far more regrets than that 
of many a man who occupied a much higher place in 
political conflict. 

Starting life poor, but ambitious like so many 
other energetic young children of the Old Land, 
Henniker Heaton sought fortune in Australia. He 
did not often speak of his early days, or of his 
early struggles. Probably they had been so hard 
that he didn't care to recall them, especially when 
he basked in the sunshine of the complete prosperity 
he enjoyed for the greater part of his life. But 
now and then he would uplift the veil, and you 
could hear stories, thrilling and amusing, of the shifts 
to which a penniless young settler had to resort when 
Australia and he were young. 




It was in the early eighties that Henniker Heaton 
returned definitely to the Old Country, by this time 
a rich newspaper proprietor, at ease with fortune, 
free to do and go as he pleased, and eager with the 
desire to find distinction in the land from which a 
few years before he had gone in search of fortune. 

Entering the House of Commons as Conservative 
member for Canterbury, he had not been there more 
than a few weeks when he began to devote himself 
to the subject which was to become the master passion 
and almost sole purpose of his political life. By an 
extraordinary instinct he could discover in the Post 
Office service its weak points, and went for them with 
unfailing aim. It was Henniker Heaton's strong will, 
tenacity, patience, and indifference to the comfort 
or the goodwill of successive Postmasters-General, 
whether of his own or the other Party, which was the 
driving force that lay behind his agitation and successful 


His success was obtained, too, by ways and methods 
which reveal a side of House of Commons' life not 
realized by the outside public. He spoke but rarely 
in the House, and then not with striking effect, and 
yet he got his way. The first weapon was the per- 
sistent and the perennial question to the Postmaster- 
General. Almost every day, for almost every week, 
in every session, Henniker Heaton would put on the 
notice paper of the House of Commons two, three, 
half a dozen questions with regard to small or large 


points of administration in the Post Office. There 
was nothing too big there was nothing too small 
for this insatiable inquirer. Sometimes it was a 
suggestion of inter-Colonial policy of great magnitude, 
but just as often it was a question as to why one city 
with a double and lengthy name, say like Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, was charged as an address as one word, 
while some other city, like, say, Barrow-in-Furness, 
was charged as two words. The Postmaster-General 
of the period fretted and fumed under his pitiless 
and insatiate shower of interrogatory especially in 
the case of the late Mr Raikes, who, though a cour- 
teous, was also an impatient Minister, and especially 
was inclined to resent these pin-pricks from a man 
of his own party. But Henniker Heaton was not a 
man to be cowed, or frozen out, or exhausted, and he 
went calmly on his way, with something of the stolid 
steady movement of a genial elephant trampling merci- 
lessly, but without malignity, on all small obstacles. 


This was one of Henniker Heaton's chief weapons. 
He also waged an active war with his pen. When 
he got on his favourite subject he could almost con- 
vince you, as he certainly convinced himself, that 
postal reform was the one panacea for most human 
ills. A third and most powerful weapon in his hands 
was the deputation to Ministers. He could get up 
a|bigger, a more powerful, and a more representative 
deputation than any other member of the House of 
Commons. The peculiarity was, that the deputation 
was the result far more of his personal influence than 
of any strong feeling of agreement with his views. 


He belonged to that rare order of men who seemed 
to find it easy to get other human beings to do any- 
thing they are asked. 

Finally, the postal reformer was one of the great 
unseen powers of the House of Commons, because 
no man in it was so constant, so generous, and so 
agreeable a host. There was scarcely a day when 
he did not bring together, either in the House of 
Commons or in some club, a big lunch or dinner-party. 
His guests came from everywhere. An inveterate 
globe-trotter, constantly passing between his home 
in England and his business in Australia, never 
satisfied until he met and entertained every man in 
the world worth knowing, insatiate in his interest in 
human beings, he could bring together more remarkable 
men, and from more diverse parts of the world, than 
almost any other man who ever sat in Parliament. 
It was a Continental statesman one day, the next 
it was a Minister from Australia, the next from Canada, 
and then perhaps a great Governor of some outlying 
region of the Empire. At his table there was no 
distinction of party : Liberals, Tories, Irish Orangemen, 
Irish Nationalists, all were welcome, and all felt 
equally at home. It was at a feast of this kind that 
you saw Henniker Heaton at his best. He said little 
himself, being more anxious about his guests enjoying 
themselves, and bringing out what was in them. 
The chief contribution he made was a hearty, infectious 
laugh, deep-noted and resonant, that became so 
familiar as to be almost historic in the dining-rooms 
of the House of Commons. 



He was a great clubman. He was not only one 
of the early founders, but also one of the most prom- 
inent figures in the Bath Club. He had strange fads 
about health, and one of them was a faith in the efficacy 
of the Turkish bath, and for years he might be found 
almost every morning, in the hottest room of the 
Turkish bath in the Bath Club, following this up with 
a swim in its spacious tank. He also visited the 
Continent freely. In the winter he might be seen, 
tall, eager, ingenuous, perspiring at the tables in 
Monte Carlo, now and then shaking the building 
with that loud, resounding laugh which was so familiar 
to his friends. For more than a quarter of a century 
he went regularly every year to Carlsbad, and to every 
one of his friends he preached the gospel that the 
waters of that well-known resort were the end of all 
human maladies. 

Sir Henniker Heaton did not effect in postal reform 
all he desired ; but one great reform he did accomplish 
which entitles him to grateful and long-enduring 
memory. To him more than to any other human 
being is due the penny postal service between England 
and America one, doubtless, of the many causes 
that have brought the peoples closer together. He 
was equally eager it was his last great campaign to 
cheapen the cable service between them, and between 
all parts of the Empire. He might apparently have 
remained Member for Canterbury for his life, but 
there came a split in the party, and his once splendid 
robustness was shaken, and he resolved to resign. 
His friends remonstrated, and there was almost a 
universal groan at the possibility of a figure so familiar 


and so popular being removed. But he persisted : 
said he was at peace with all men and quite happy. 
So one day he was seen standing at the Speaker's 
chair as the last Parliament was about to dissolve, 
with wistful eyes, taking his final look at the place of 
which he had been an essential part for more than 
twenty-five years. 



" Practical and steadfast in purpose ; trusted in all the relations of life, 
and who by persistent effort has done more than most men for ensuring the 
unity of the Empire. I am proud to have the privilege of Sir John Henniker 
Heaton's friendship." LORD STRATHCONA, 

High Commissioner for Canada. 

IN looking back on the circle of friends that H. H. 
gathered around him, it is almost startling to 
find the number of great Irishmen included in 
it. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Lord Russell of 
Killowen, Sir John Pope Hennessy, Lord Rosmead, 
Lord Killanin, John and William Redmond, Robert 
Martin (Ballyhooley) and T. P. O'Connor, were all 
among those in whose society and brilliance he de- 

It is an unfortunate fact for biographers that 
the greater the friendship, and as a consequence the 
more frequent the intercourse, the fewer are the letters, 
other than brief notes exchanged. 

Old members of the Carlton may feel that more 
should have been written of H. H.'s connection with 
the club, where his chief interests centred and where 
he was so familiar a figure. He knew the traditions 
and the history that was made and unmade within 
its walls, and he was never happy for long away from 
the Carlton. 

The friendship existing between H. H. and Lord 
Blyth was of that enduring quality made firmer by 



time and dearer by recollection of hard-fought battles. 
They were associated in nearly every movement for 
cheapening postage and telegraph rates. A very 
frequent exchange of letters was kept up, and by the 
courtesy of Lord Blyth I am able to produce one or 
two. The following was written from the Sackville 
Hotel, Bexhill-on-Sea : 


Very pleased I am to get your long and genial 
letter. I think I told you of my doings since leaving 
you and my beloved Carlsbad. You may depend 
upon it there is no more kind or restful place in Europe ; 
but it is difficult to follow the ideal life, feeding the 
birds under the trees, taking breakfast there, and 
attending the beautiful concerts in the Post Ho} and 
other places. You must try to rest more next year, 
although my little wife says I ought to be the last 
to preach on this subject of rest. I think I told you 
of the splendid steamer from Bremen. Marconi and 
his charming Irish girl-wife met me at the Wharf at 
Southampton, and perfect happiness followed at 
Eaglehurst. There were two beautiful Irish-Italian 
children in care of an ideal nurse from Italy. I would 
like Claude Rome's fine little boy to play with Marconi's 
children, and to hear their unsurpassed baby Italian 

You are a judge, and you like good letters. Well, 
I received one from Lord Halsbury the other day, 
very unique. Liberals may not consider him the 
greatest living Englishman, but I would like you to 
mention the name of one with more force of character, 
more manly, or more sound in judgment, or whose 
law is made to conform with justice and fairness. 
Let me quote an amusing passage from Lord Halsbury's 
letter to me on his birthday : 




Nothing but the warmth of personal friendship 
could excuse what the paper you sent to me represented 
you to have said to the gentleman who reported your 
views. I have been overwhelmed with the kindnesses 
of my friends and feel myself somewhat in the position 
of the litigant who did not recognize himself in the 
description given of him by his Counsel, but when he 
did he wept to know what a fine fellow he had been 
and did not know it himself. Sincerely I most heartily 
thank you, and believe me, I am deeply, etc. 


The picture of the criminal weeping in the dock, 
while his Counsel tells the jury what a noble fellow 
he is, causes my family much amusement. 
Your sincerely attached friend, 


From Bath on December 12, 1912 he wrote : 


The Dinner was very successful and devoted 
to Imperial affairs, wide-world postage, wire and 
wireless. I did not realize how important the plumbers 
are in this planet until I heard Sir Thomas Barlow 
and Sir Vesey Strong. The new Lord Mayor spoke 
vigorously and carried his audience by his undoubted 
honesty and earnestness. The new High Commissioner 
for New Zealand, Mr Mackenzie, who was Prime 
Minister there for a long while (as successor to Sir 
Joseph Ward) also spoke, telling us the story of his 
introducing compulsory training in that new land 
the Great Britain of the Southern Hemisphere. He 


made a capital defence of his action in preparing his 
people to defend their splendid homes in the new 
country. I was very glad to get back here to rest, 
and endeavour to make some progress with the arrang- 
ing of my correspondence during the 30 years. I 
am having the letters bound in volumes of fair size. 
The best letter writer was Dean Lefroy. Sir William 
Harcourt's letters, in a few of which he lets himself 
go, are strikingly good. Lord Salisbury's letter de- 
nouncing the meddling Methodist and Nonconformist 
Ministers will create a row. He was guilty of " blazing 
indiscretions," although it was not his fault when he 
mistook you for Lord Roberts and told you State 
secrets. It was a mistake to call a nation " Hotten- 
tots." It is a wonder that no one has written the 
life of Lord Salisbury or given a selection of his letters. 
I shall never forget his frankness and manly attitude 
when we discussed Home Rule for Ireland with Sir 
Charles Gavan Duffy, and I had the first interview 
with Lord Carnarvon in Dublin. We had another 
historic interview. The Postmaster-General and his 
officials were wavering when we were urging the 
purchase of the Cables between England, France, and 
Belgium. We won through Lord Salisbury taking a 
part. It was on a parallel with the interview between 
Whitelaw Reid, my old friend Lord Blyth of Blyth- 
wood, and myself. In 25 letters from Lord Salisbury, 
including the one when Raikes had a rebellion in the 
Post Office and Salisbury told me that either Raikes 
or Stevenson Blackwood would have to go (he meant 
Raikes). The new trouble that oppresses me, and it 
is a great one, is the propriety of letting the public see 
these letters although all the men are dead. I hope 
I am incapable of doing a wrong to anyone on this 
earth. Never once have I been disloyal to my party, 
never once voted against my party. Of course I 
never was a keen politician, never attacked the Opposi- 
tion, but worked for Empire. 


Excuse this egotistical letter in my sunset days, 
I have no vanity, no desire for fame. 
Affectionate regards to you all, 

Your attached friend, 


A letter from Lord Blyth to H. H. in Australia, 
dated September 25th, 1913 : 


After the way I have neglected you as regards 
writing I am now half ashamed to communicate with 
you again. I console myself with the thought that 
a letter could not possibly have reached you before 
your departure from Australia. . . . 

Before Sir George Reid left for Australia and before 
my departure for Carlsbad, I had the honour of being 
one of a very distinguished party of 14 who dined 
with Sir George at the United Service Club to meet 
Mr Elihu Root, the well-known United States Senator, 
where I met Lord Haldane, Lord Morley, and Mr 
Bonar Law, next to whom I sat, and we had a most 
convivial evening. You will no doubt have seen that 
the Foundation Stone of the Australian Commonwealth 
Building in the Strand was laid by King George. 
Nothing could have been better arranged by Sir 
George for the distinguished company that there 
assembled. I met Lord Stamfordham at a dinner 
at the Athenaeum Club a day or two afterwards when 
he told me that the King was delighted at the splendid 
way Sir George had managed matters, and really I 
think he has shown himself quite a hero of this season, 
and has done more than most men for the salvation of 
the Empire. I hope we shall soon see him back again 
here and that I may often meet him with you. . . . 

I should tell you that under promise made some 
time previously I went last week to Holker Hall in 
Lancashire to stay with Lord Richard Cavendish, 


for the entire dispersal of his celebrated herd of Short- 
horn Cattle. You may remember that the late Duke 
of Devonshire had sales from time to time, when the 
prices realized were fabulous. At one of the sales 
Sir Wilfrid Lawson gave 600 guineas for a bull, and 
two or three days after it was found dead in its stall, 
whereupon Sir Wilfrid took up a piece of chalk and 
wrote on the wall : 

' ' Here lies Oxford 6th placid and cool, 
Bred by a Duke and bought by a fool." 

I am afraid I shall bore you with this long letter, 
if it ever reaches you, although there are many subjects 
I should have touched upon if there had been time. 

I look forward, however, to many opportunities 
of having a chat with you when you return. 

With my warmest regards to you, Lady Henniker 
Heat on, your daughter, and indeed all your family. 
I am, always, 

Your most affectionate friend, 


It might truly be said that H. H.'s circle of 
acquaintances stretched from the Tropics to the 
Arctic Ocean. We find H. M. Stanley writing to H. H. 
in 1897 : " It is warm and uncomfortable in London 
and I pant for fresh air." That Stanley of Africa 
should find London too warm, is one of those 
endearing touches that link him with his fellow-men 
only less agreeably than the fact that even his gift 
of locality was occasionally at fault. 

" Brave Henry Stanley found a track 

Through Afric's inmost Dark, 
But lost his way (I heard him say) 
In our St James's Park." 

Mr Reginald Geard, the Honorary Secretary of 


the Savage Club, sends the following notes as to H. H.'s 
association with that club : 

" Sir John Henniker Heaton's Membership dating 
back to the year 1885, he was among the oldest members, 
and there was none more closely identified with the 
home life of the Club. He -frequently lunched in 
Adelphi Terrace, particularly on Saturdays, when 
there was generally a gathering of familiar spirits who 
exchanged the latest stories from Fleet Street and the 
City with Sir John's chit-chat from the House of 
Commons. After lunch he usually stayed on for a 
game of Bridge to the end maintaining that straight 
Bridge was better than all your Auctions. Sir John 
always said that he went to the Savage Club for rest 
and recreation and his fellow-members made a rule 
that postal grievances and the Postmaster-General 
should never be mentioned in his hearing. 

" He would forget that such things existed in the 
pleasure of hearing Odell give ' Harvest Home ' 
or Willie Nichols sing ' On the Road to Mandalay.' 
Some brilliant lightning sketches done by ' Tom 
Brown ' he carried away and had framed in his 
library. The walls of the Club are decorated with a 
picture of Sir John, Mostyn Pigott, and others playing 
a round game, called Spelka, which had its genesis 
in the Club and of which Sir John was an enthusiastic 

" The Saturday night House dinners of the Savage 
Club are world famous and year after year Sir John 
was invited to take the chair. Among the memorable 
occasions on which he presided, may be recalled the 
dinner of 2ist February 1903 when the Club enter- 
tained his great friend, Signor Marconi, when a special 
menu was drawn by the well-known sea painter, Charles 

" Another brilliant menu, preserved in the Club 
archives, is from the brush of John Hassall, R.I., in 


celebration of the Savage Club Empire Night dinner, 
June 2oth, 1908. It depicts the Chairman, Mr J. 
Henniker Heat on, M. P., as he then was, clad in flowing 
toga and tooling a team of wild horses from a Chariot 
that had left the earth for the Clouds. The Steeds' 
collars bespoke them ' United States/ ' Canada,' 
' Australia,' and ' Africa,' while the Chariot bore 
the Legend ' One penny all the way ! ' A happy 
recognition of the Chairman's life work for the 
penny postage. 

" It was on 29th June, 1912, that Sir John was 
specially invited to be the guest of the Club at a house 
dinner presided over by Mr Yeend King, V. P.R.I., 
when he was cordially congratulated in Savage style 
on the Baronetcy which the King had just conferred 
upon him. 

" When the end came, in September, 1914, a wreath, 
' In Memoriam from his brother Savages,' was laid 
upon the grave in Geneva by his old friend and fellow 
Club man, Dr Turtle Pigott, while a deputation from 
the Committee attended the Memorial Service at St 
Margaret's in London." 

Apart from his political life, H. H. chiefly enjoyed 
what may be called his excursions into literary society. 
The many Sunday afternoons spent by him, and his 
wife, with Wilfrid and Alice Meynell were among 
their dearest and happiest recollections. At Palace 
Court House was gathered all that was choicest in 
artistic and literary London. It is impossible to 
describe the effect Mrs Meynell has upon her surround- 
ings there is only a feeling that the chasm between 
the material world and the spiritual world has been 
suddenly bridged. 

In reply to my request for a few memories of H. H. 
Mr Wilfrid Meynell writes : 




" A little dinner-party in the Addison Road region 
of London was my first introduction to John Henniker 
Heat on, then freshly arrived from Australia. Our 
host was Dr Rae, a hero of mine in my boyhood 
when he went on his Arctic Expedition in search of 
Franklin. He did not find the Explorer, but he found 
the explorer's spoons, and I remember an old rumour 
of dispute as to whom these relics really belonged to, 
Dr Rae or the surviving relative of Sir John a 
case in which law and feeling might indeed be sharply 
sundered. Mrs Rae, in charm and character the 
youngest woman who wore white hair, and her sister, 
Miss Skefnngton Thompson, were ardent friends of 
Irish Nationality, and my impression is that the man 
from the Antipodes rather shared their sympathies. 

" Gladstone had not then affixed the Liberal label 
to Home Rule ; and I remember many Conservatives 
who were favourable in those days to a cause from 
which party loyalty later alienated them. 

"As to Party ties, though it was part of Heaton's 
loyalty of character to respect them, I do not think 
that Party animus found any lodgment in his dis- 
position. He had his friends among men of all 
opinions ; and, associating ideas of practical service 
with political life, after the manner of most Colonials, 
he did not come to England wearing any party badge ; 
and it was accident rather than design that gave him 
his opportunity for National usefulness as Conservative 
Member for Canterbury. 

" My first meeting with him in that environment 
led to a friendship broken only by Sir John Henniker 
Heaton's death. In the busy life of London, diners- 
out meet and like one another, and say they hope to 
meet again, and then lapse into a nothingness that 
is just kept in evidence by a casual nod across a 
clubroom, or in the street. 

" But there was something genial about Heaton 
that put you at once on terms almost of intimacy. 


For a man of independent opinions, very definite 
ideas, rather strong personal prepossessions, and even 
prejudices, he was amazingly amenable, and thus 
while it was particularly pleasant to agree with him 
one could disagree without a hint of disagreeableness. 
Perhaps it was because he was very human. I use 
the word with no patronizing concession of weakness 
in it. Mother wit was his, of a masculinity denying 
its name : and of a brand that had an agreeable 
novelty because it was Colonial. I know a sensitive 
speaker who says she found it easy to speak to an 
American audience because it is in the air that they 
actively want to like you, whereas in England you feel 
that your hearers are at the best passive. In the case 
of Heat on you felt he wanted to like you, and wanted 
you to like him, a very simple process in consequence 
it seemed. His outlook and yours might be totally 
at variance in literature, and therefore ' in life 
Temporal and Eternal/ and yet you felt for him 
from the first a friendship which soon became an 

" In a rather long life I never met anybody quite 
so hospitable. A request to give any recollections of 
him as Host and Guest brings home to me how often 
he served in the first capacity, how rarely in the latter. 
He seemed never to be really happy unless he was 
entertaining. 1 This was an instinct with him he 
must be the giver more blest than the receiver. 
You cannot succeed in this capacity at random. 
It takes you all your born days to be anything worth 
having : and without the sincere effluence of con- 
sistent habits love itself degenerates into politeness, 


So our meeting must be in London and you are to fix the day and 
the hour. The restaurant and the Host ! Be entertained for once you 
who are always entertaining in two senses. 

Your attached friend, 



politeness into sham. A little slip of printed matter, 
carried in his pocket till it became threadbare, is 
before me now : ' I shall pass through this world but 
once ; any good thing that I can do or any kindness 
that I can show to any human being let me do it now. 
Let me not defer it or neglect it, for I shall not pass this 
way again.' 

" Those who knew him will recognize in these words 
his abiding rule in life. 

"This genius for hospitality was not based merely 
on considerateness for those with smaller means than 
his own. I have seen men of ' Great possessions ' 
submit as readily as myself to the fascination of this 
form of his friendliness. Below ' The Champagne 
Standard ' of hospitality he was distressed when 
far afield to fall, and the sparkle in his eye when success 
crowned his efforts was more inviting than the sparkle 
in the wine. His little courtesies like his larger 
kindnesses were done with the tact that voided the 
hard rule of an advantage to one being a disadvantage 
to another. The little boy-scout who felt worried 
after going to bed because he had done no kindness 
that day, and who therefore got up and gave the 
canary to the cat, has many a double among the 
mature, but Heaton was not of their number. Royalty 
would not have needed to send him the list of the 
guests to be invited to meet it his own instinct would 
have sufficed. Among the many memories of meetings 
he brought about I recall particularly a breakfast 
at the Bath Club with the Hon. John Wanamaker 
as a fellow-guest. A Postmaster-General himself 
in one of the administrations of the United States, 
he talked indeed of posts, then of poets (he loved his 
Riley) and then of pictures. It was a May morning, 
the Academy was close at hand, whither we three 
adjourned to compare impressions, to cavil and in 
one case at least, to be conquered. For Sargent was 
in his glory that season, and Sargent belonged to both 


our countries, and I had to name a new land common 
to us the Sargentine Republic. 

"Teas on the Terrace and dinners at the House 
remain as affectionate memories of those otherwise 
rather frigid and formal precincts. In his own home 
those amenities had their full flowering ; but of this 
it must be the happiness of others to speak. 

" A busy man, he had, of course, time for every- 
thing he wanted to do generally a kindness to some 
one. No one of my acquaintance would take more 
trouble than he to serve a friend, or a friend's friend, 
and it must have been a constant joy to him that 
the great cause with which his name is associated 
was one by which the sum total of the World's store 
of kindness is likely to be increased. To be genial 
and to be genuine by his double perogative he lives 
in my memory as a man of men." 

To this appreciative friend, H. H. wrote many 
letters. The one here given makes light allusion to 
a paragraph of banter (presumably Mr Meynell's in 
" The Daily Chronicle " about H. H.'s friend, Thomas 
Sidney Cooper, R.A., whose name and letters were 
worked into an anagram : 


[Mr Meynell admits himself the quoter but not 
the author of the anagram.] 


iqth August 1910. 

I am delighted to hear that you are in London. 
When I am tired and want a refreshing chat I 
walk over to the Pall Mall Club hoping to meet you, 
but I am not often successful. 

What colossal coolness ! I could not sleep after 


reading " The Daily Chronicle's " treatment of Thomas 
Sidney Cooper. The boys throwing stones at the 
poor frog was as nothing to it. It may be fun to you 
readers, but it was death to the hopes of Sidney 
Cooper's friends. 

After a decent interval had elapsed (to make the 
public forget your cruelty) we happily received from 
the King a note, I shall show you if you will lunch 
with me on Saturday at i p.m. here. 

And we can talk of other interesting events. 
Yours always, 


An interesting letter from Dr John Rae, giving an 
account of his search for Sir John Franklin, was written 
to H. H. in 1882 : 


I would not venture to trouble you about the 
now old story of poor Franklin's fate, had you not 
referred to it in your note to my wife, accompanied 
by the beautiful and interesting book you have sent 
her. Before I returned from the Arctic in 1854 I 
had the most clear assurance from the Eskimos that 
a large number of white men, at least about 45, had 
perished about four winters before, at a place on the 
Mainland of America, which was a long day's journey 
with dogs and sledge from the mouth of a large river 
where there were plenty of salmon, and that the 
position was the side of river towards the setting 
sun or the West. That the party when seen alive were 
looking very thin, and made very short days journeys, 
hauling one or two boats. That they were first seen 
travelling southward, near the west shore of a large 
island (Keicktak). The river and island were evidently 
the Great Fish River of Back, and King William 
Land, formerly thought to be a part of Boothia, 
but which I proved to be insular in 1854. 


There were 16 Officers of both ships, I obtained 
and brought home with me articles, with crests, 
initials or other marks, showing that they had be- 
longed to 14 of those 16 Officers. There were among 
these Sir J. Franklin's Cross of Knighthood (which 
a woman wore round her neck as an ornament) and 
a number of his spoons and forks. 

On the very day of my arrival I went to the 
Admiralty and saw the First Lord, Sir J. Graham, 
who on hearing my story said, " Are you aware, Dr 
Rae, that the Government have offered a reward of 
10,000 for news of the fate of the missing Expedi- 
tion ? ' I replied no. He then told me of it, and 
said that he thought we were entitled to it and would 
be standing in my own light if I didn't apply for it ! 
My Expedition was not a Government but a Hudson's 
Bay Go's, one, fitted out wholly at their expense, 
therefore my report was sent to the Company for and 
forwarded by them to the Admiralty. 

An immediate answer, dated 24th October 1834, 
was addressed to the Secretary of the Hudson's Bay 
Co., in which are the following words, " Their Lord- 
ships request you will inform Dr Rae of their Lordships 
high approval of the services of Dr Rae who has set 
at rest the unfortunate fate of Sir John Franklin and 
his party." 

The award of 10,000 would have been granted 
almost immediately, but Collinson was still in the 
Arctic Seas and it was very reasonably thought that 
he might possibly have a prior claim. This doubt 
arose from the fact that the Admiralty had rather 
prematurely paid a somewhat similar claim for finding 
some lost Missionary people a short time before, 
another claim soon after having been made. 

An Expedition, meantime, was sent down to the 
Back River to inquire further into the matter, and 
look for the documents. Nothing of importance 
came of it, as I believed and stated from the first 


that all documents had been destroyed. I mean 
journals and books, because the natives told me, 
that at least a dozen books with markings on them, 
(not blank books) had been seen, and being of no use 
to the Eskimos were thrown aside or given to the 
children to play with and torn up. 

No documents have ever been found except that 
by M'Clintock in Spring 1859, which informs us that 
the good Franklin died in 1847. All M'Clintock's other 
information confirmed mine in a wonderful manner. 

After Collinson's return with no news the reward 
(10,000) was paid to me and fellows in spite of some 
strong opposition from one or two quarters. 

Excuse my troubling you with such a very long 
letter on a very small and old subject. 
And believe me, 

Sincerely yours, 


Early in life, through the good offices of Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy, H. H. was given an introduction to 
Carlyle and spent an unforgettable hour in the Chelsea 
house. Carlyle spoke much of Australia and asked 
repeatedly about the youth of Australia : what were 
the young men doing what were they reading ? 
Did they work ? H. H. could quote an Australian 
friend, who had heard from Carlyle's own lips, " Life 
only begins with self-renunciation." When H. H. 
rose to leave, Carlyle shook his hand with an approv- 
ing, " I am told you are a young man who is going 
to do some great work." 

" Henniker Heaton, what a name for a novel," 
cried Anthony Hope, meeting H. H. for the first time. 

Unfortunately, Rudyard Kipling's promise of 
some verses was never fulfilled. On December I7th, 
1900, he wrote from The Elms, Rottingdean : 



I've been watching your fight with an interested 
eye from far off, and have seen you getting your own 
way, inch by inch and foot by foot, with the notion 
that some day I'd do a set of verses about it. But it's 
more difficult (verses I mean) to do them than you 
think. Give me time and perhaps I shall be able 
to make something worthy of the new step. I can't 
do things in a short time. 

Sincerely and with congratulations, 


For many years H. H. saw a great deal of W. T. 
Stead, and sorrowed deeply over his tragic death in 
the ill-fated " Titanic." Memory recalls a summer 
day in June when W. T. Stead, David Murray, R.A., 
Archdeacon Sinclair, and H. H. travelled down to 
Windsor together as fellow-guests of their mutual 
friend Henry Arthur Jones, the dramatist. W. T. 
Stead had the appearance of the Old Buccaneer : 
broad-brimmed hat, white hair and beard, and blue 
eyes of an unquenchable fire and vigour alternating 
with the sudden dreamy look of one who saw visions. 
He was in high spirits and his great laugh as he threw 
back his head was the whole-hearted laugh of a true 

H. H.'s friendship with Marconi was spread over 
many years, and each fresh triumph of wireless was 
watched with enthusiastic and affectionate wonder. 
The greatest magician of the age, for whom no honour 
can be sufficiently high, no reward adequate, counted 
H. H. among his earliest friends. His favourite 
advice to all young men was to secure happiness in 
life by marrying an Irish girl, and it was with especial 
pleasure that he heard of Marconi's approaching 


marriage with the Hon. Beatrice O'Brien, a daughter 
of Lord Inchiquin. 


28th Jan. 1905. 

Your kind letter of congratulation has given 
me and my fiancee the very greatest pleasure. 

To have true friends is one of the greatest joys of 
life, and it is now many years that you have been a 
true friend to me. 

I am so glad you approve of my engagement and 
hope you will soon meet my future wife. 

If I could write as well as you do I would find more 
and better words with which to express my thanks 
to you and to Mrs Henniker Heaton for your very kind 
letter and wishes. 

Believe me always, 

Your friend, 



2ist Jan. 1906. 

I am so sorry I was away when you arrived 
from Australia and missed having the pleasure of 
sending you a wireless welcome. I followed the 
contest at Canterbury, and held my breath, so to speak, 
until the result was known. Now that you are in, 
and safe, I write you my sincere congratulations. 

I do hope I shall have the pleasure of meeting you 
and yours soon again. My wife asks me to send you 
her love. 

What an awful time the U's have had, especially 
the members of the late Government ! 

Yours ever, 



Dean Lefroy of Norwich " the best letter writer " 
was a friend to whom H. H. was deeply attached. 


Just one line not to congratulate you this 
I'll not do, but to gratify my insignificant self by 
addressing you by a higher title. You are the one 
member of the Party to whom every living citizen in 
the mother country, and millions of subjects over sea, 
is not only indebted but indebted with every sunrise 
and with every sunset, and the debt is cumulative, 
permanent, and universal. I know you don't care 
for such recognition, and I know that you have the 
regard and affection of innumerable beneficiaries of 
your Imperial policy, in all zones and in all civilizations. 
Ever your attached friend, 


Among H. H.'s letters, one of the most character- 
istic is a note from the greatest of all Empire builders, 
the Right Honourable Cecil Rhodes, written from the 
Burlington Hotel, W. : 

Thanks for welcome and use of Club. 
I see you have got your Penny Postage through. 
I must get my Railway through, and then we must 
meet and celebrate joint work. 



The most regular of H. H.'s oversea correspondents 
was his great friend Sir Joseph Ward, Prime Minister 
of New Zealand. The following letter was written on 
the yth of May, 1909 : 


Thank you so much for sending the posters to 
me regarding our offer of support to the British Navy. 
It is very gratifying to find that in the dear old 


land it is appreciated, and I am glad to tell you that 
throughout N.Z. the Government's action has been 
generally approved. I read with great interest all 
you say in your letter of 26th March accompanying 
the posters. 

I feel very happy at what we have done, as I feel 
very strongly that duty to King and Country calls 
for co-operation between the mother land and the 
oversea dominions and so show the world that we are 
deadly in earnest in our determination to stand to- 
gether as one in reality, and I am sure myself that 
there is in the matter of Naval Defence a new era 
opening out for the British Empire. 

The Conference that your Prime Minister has 
announced is a most desirable move. The date it is 
to be held will determine whether we can be represented. 
We will be there if at all possible. I am writing 
hurriedly to catch the mail, with all good wishes. 

Yours sincerely, 


In reprinting a letter from the great Victorian 
hero, Field-Marshal Viscount Wolseley, it is perhaps 
hardly necessary to speak of the high esteem and 
admiration he felt for every branch of the Service of 
which he was Commander-in-Chief. Those familiar 
with his famous book, " The Story of a Soldier's Life," 
can never tire of reading the gallant and heroic deeds 
told with the simple admiration of one fearless soldier 
for another. To-day, when war is more than ever 
a science, it is easy to understand the emphasis Lord 
Wolseley, throughout his career, laid upon the necessity 
of officers obtaining a scientific education, without 
which the highest personal valour is insufficient to 
ensure victory. On November ist, 1900, he wrote 
from Beech Hill, Sheffield : 



You asked me before I left this evening, how 
I thought the officers of our Artillery compared with 
those in other corps of the Army. I should not like 
to draw any comparisons, but without being in any 
way invidious I can point to the fact that our R.A. 
officers receive a better military education at Woolwich 
than is usually obtained by officers educated else- 
where. I have always found them most anxious to 
learn the higher subjects which constitute a sound 
military education. 

Amongst the ablest officers I have had on my 
Staff, Generals Sir Henry Brackenbury and Sir 
Frederick Maurice are Gunners, and I selected them 
because I deemed them the best men for the work. 

Believe me to be, 

Very truly yours, 


From war to peace is the natural transition and 
therefore the next in order must be a letter from 
Andrew Carnegie. 

Mr Carnegie more than all others was at one with 
H. H. in his conviction that an easier communication 
between nations could only lead to a closer union of 
mankind all the world over ; and on September 20th, 
1909, he wrote, from Skibo Castle, Dornoch, 
Sutherland : 


I should be very proud indeed to co-operate 
with you in the great cause of Peace, but unfortunately 
it is impossible for me to be in London next week. 

You do well to cultivate the journalists, for really 
these people have more influence for good or bad, 
and especially for peace or war, than any other class. 

I agree with you that knowledge of other countries 


leads one to the truth, viz., that no nation desires 
war, and that all that is needed is that the few govern- 
ing, of each country, should confer freely. I think 
that a few of the best men of each country, meeting in 
conference, would agree that the time has come when 
some of the leading nations should unite in intimating 
to the world that they expect civilized nations to 
settle their differences peaceably. They have only 
to say the word and the power is theirs to banish war. 
Delighted to know you are taking up the subject of 
Cable Communications, for you have a way of getting 
things done which is rare. I never address an envelope 
to New York without receiving pleasure from putting 
my hands upon an embossed Penny Stamp, which 
takes the letter to London or New York 

Always very truly yours, 





grandeur and splendour of Australian 
scenery, the smell of the gum-trees and 
the blue smoke wreathing upwards, the 
deep gullies and far horizons held for H. H. 
a romance and poetry that nothing else could ever 
rival. He loved the days of blue and gold sunshine, 
and above all the divine youth of the country and 
her people. " Ce sont les jours de notre jeunesse qui 
jont le beau temps." 

Australia proved a kind stepmother to H. H. as 
she has been to thousands upon thousands of young 
Englishmen. That much abused relationship should 
gain a newer meaning through the large-hearted 
generosity of Australia's welcome to all her stepsons. 

Much of the romance of Australian life has died 
out with the coming of the railways and motor-cars. 

When H. H. first arrived in Australia, bush-ranging 
was in full swing, and, although he had no experience 
of being " stuck up," he could well remember the 
excitement caused by the exploits of Captain Thunder- 
bolt that were then on every one's lips. 

There was a story current of an encounter between 
the notorious Captain Thunderbolt whose real name 
was Frederick Ward and a German band in Goonoo 
Goonoo gap. The German band pleaded so piteously 
for their money that Thunderbolt promised that if 

he should succeed in robbing the principal winner 


at the Tenterfield races, for whom he was on the 
look-out, he would return it. This promise he faith- 
fully kept, much to their astonishment, by sending 
to them, to the post office at Warwick, the 20 he had 
taken from them. 

After such chivalrous conduct, it is pleasing to 
learn that Captain Thunderbolt met a more picturesque 
death than the majority of his confreres. This latter- 
day Beau Brocade was killed in a desperate duel with 
a brave young constable Alexander Walker in 1870. 

Not less romantic were the stories of strangely- 
won fortunes that were then common talk, as, for 
instance, the richest copper mines in Australia being 
sold for a bottle of rum. 

The six years H. H. spent in compiling his " Austra- 
lian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time " brought 
him into contact with many of the oldest inhabitants, 
and as a consequence his mind became stored with 
curious facts and legends. 

His retentive memory enabled him to enliven his 
Australian reminiscences with the most curious col- 
lection of tales culled from all sources. He records 
somewhere in his book a remarkable series pf wrecks 
suffered by the same people. The adventures of Jonah 
pale into insignificance before this plain statement of 
misfortune : 

" The ' Mermaid,' colonial government cutter, left 
Sydney for Raffles Bay, but on entering Torres Straits 
she ran on shore and was lost, October, 1829. All 
on board were saved upon a rock. In three days the 
' Swiftsure,' Captain Johnson, which sailed from Tas- 
mania, hove in sight, and took on board the captain 
and crew of the ' Mermaid/ but in a few days she also 
ran on shore and was wrecked. Two days afterwards 


the ' Governor Ready,' also from Tasmania, April 2, 
passing within sight, took the shipwrecked people 
belonging to the ' Mermaid ' and ' Swiftsure ' on 
board ; but was herself wrecked on May 18, but ail 
the people were saved by taking refuge in the long- 
boats. The ship ' Comet/ also from Tasmania, soon 
afterwards took the whole of the collected crews of 
the lost ships, ' Mermaid/ ' Swiftsure/ and ' Governor 
Ready ' on board, but was herself wrecked ; all hands 
were, however, saved. At last the ' Jupiter/ from 
Tasmania, came in sight and, taking all on board, 
steered for Port Raffles, at the entrance to which 
harbour she ran on shore, and received so much 
damage that it may be said she was also wrecked." 

Alas, that tragedy after a certain point should 
become merely ludicrous ! 

Although H. H. did not arrive in Australia until 
1864, he was not too late to see something of the gold- 
fever that possessed men's minds, and he heard many 
tales of the first rush to the goldfields. As every one 
knows, gold was discovered in Australia in 1851 by 
Edward Hargreaves, a resident of New South Wales. 
In a few days Sydney was in a ferment. Stockmen 
and shepherds left their charges, workmen their 
employment, shopkeepers their stores, doctors their 
patients, and lawyers their clients, and poured along 
the roads into the hills. 

" One was a peer of ancient blood, 
The lord of acres none. 
One was a wrangler from the Cam, 
In purse and name undone. 
One could speak in the choicest Greek, 
And one was a bishop's son ; 
And they dug 
And they dug 

For gold." 


Frequently, a nugget of gold that a man could 
scarcely stagger under was found. It was a common 
thing to serve out buckets of champagne, and to make 
pipe lights of 5 notes. In 1856 Mr Cameron, a store- 
keeper at the woolshed, New El Dorado, rode into 
Beechworth, Victoria, on a horse called Castor, the 
animal being shod with golden shoes. The weight 
of each shoe was 7 oz. 4 dwt. 

Many were the hopes raised and sunk in goldfield 
speculations. A favourite story of H. H/s concerned 
a large nugget that was sent to England and a company 
floated which was called by some fantastic name. 
After a long delay the shareholders, hearing nothing 
further from Australia, cabled out, " When are you 
going to begin crushing the gold ? " " Directly you 
send us back our nugget," was the prompt reply. 

Among H. H.'s papers was found an old Share 
certificate of the famous " Big Diamond Syndicate." 
The stone was found near, I believe, Wagga Wagga, 
N.S.W., and was at first thought to be a wonderful 
diamond of surpassing size. A small syndicate was 
formed to have it tested and bitter was the disappoint- 
ment when it turned out to be of no value. 


No. 47. 

THIS is to certify that W. R. Hall is entitled to one 
i/iooths interest in the Supposed Big Diamond 
Subject to the arrangements made with Mr Town- 
shend by Mr J. S. Butters. 


There was nothing H. H. enjoyed more in later 

years than meeting old friends and recalling adventures 
of Australian days. The passage of time could not 
obliterate from his memory the long hot days spent 
in the saddle and the nights sitting round the camp 
fire exchanging yarns and singing the favourite camp 
chorus, " Rise up, William Riley." 

It was a free, happy life, full of hard work and 
adventure with such amenities as the occasional 
" Grand Ball " the nearest township would provide. 
H. H. could recall one such gathering, to which he 
rode a two days' journey in order to be present. The 
squatters and their wives drove in from miles around, 
and all went well until the middle of the evening when 
a tragedy occurred. One of the guests suddenly fell 
dead in the ball-room. The evening broke up in 
shocked silence and horror. 

On the following day, which happened to be 
Sunday, service was held at the largest station by 
a clergyman who was making his annual visit through 
the district. An unusually large congregation was 
present owing to the painful impression created on 
every one's mind by the shocking occurrence of the 
night before. Taking as his text " In the midst of 
life we are in death," the clergyman preached a 
striking sermon, which moved the greater part of his 
audience to tears. 

The next morning, having heard that H. H. was 
travelling in his direction, the clergyman proposed 
that they should bear each other company. For 
three weeks they rode together from station to station, 
and to his alarm H. H. found he was compelled to listen 
to the same sermon on each occasion. Naturally 
his sense of pathos had by this time given way to sheer 
impatience, and he told the clergyman frankly that 


he must either compose a new sermon or they must 
part company. 

Loath to discard the most affecting sermon he had 
ever preached, the clergyman suggested that H. H. 
should travel on a day ahead of him. This arrange- 
ment was made in all good faith, and H. H. set off 
alone ; but arriving at the next station, he could 
not resist the temptation to tell his story, and as he 
had an excellent memory he was able to repeat the 
sermon word for word, showing the exact points at 
which handkerchiefs were produced and where sobs 
invariably broke out. 

This story H. H. proceeded to repeat at each stage 
of his journey, until a frantic telegram reached him 
from his ill-treated friend : " Come back at once, or 
cease ruining my meetings." The end of the story 
was that H. H., after listening to the most vehement 
reproaches, agreed to travel a day's journey behind 
the clergyman who was thus able to preach his 
famous sermon from one end of the district to the 

H. H. had also many amusing experiences to relate 
of his early days as a Jackeroo the Australian term 
for " tender-foot," or young men new to station-life. 
Young Englishmen fresh out from home have much 
to learn, and meet with much abuse in the learning. 
There is a convention that " in London you may do 
anything you like except cheat at cards." Young 
Englishmen are quick to learn that " in Australia 
you may do anything you like except leave a gate 
open." If we are to believe local tradition, many 
an Englishman's bones lie bleaching in the sun because 
they omitted to conform to this simple rule. 

Having then learnt the law of the Gate, and ac- 


quired some dexterity in " boiling a billy " and making 
damper a mixture of flour and water baked in the 
ashes of a camp-fire H. H. felt himself in a position 
to entertain his friends on a somewhat more lavish 
scale. He was at the time camping out with four 
friends, and they resolved to commemorate Christmas 
Day by giving a dinner-party. 

The piece de resistance was a chicken which they 
managed to procure at untold trouble from a great 
distance. For weeks and weeks the chicken was fed, 
and watched with the care usually devoted only to 
prize birds at annual fairs. Far and wide, H. H. 
and his friends let it be known that their dinner- 
party was to include this exquisite morsel. 

The day arrived, and H. H. elected to kill and cook 
the bird himself. When the moment arrived, he 
proudly carried in the billy containing the chicken 
and lifted the cover. The next moment one of his 
friends had seized the bird and with a volley of oaths 
flung it at the head of H. H. The whole party rushed 
into the open air and fell on H. H. in a body. Poor 
H. H. ! he had flung the bird straight into the pot 
after having plucked it, under the impression that no 
other preparations were necessary before cooking a 
chicken! That day they had cold mutton for their 
Christmas dinner. Every housewife, from the Barcoo 
to Sydney, smiled when she heard the story. 

Years afterwards, when H. H. was a constant and 
popular host in the House of Commons, he would 
remember the fiasco of his first essay in entertaining 
his friends. 

In early days H. H. came into contact with the 
pleasant happy life led by the squatters, whose princely 
hospitality was already a byword. He never forgot the 


kindness he received nor the encouragement and help 
he met with from the owners of those vast territories. 
Some of the old families have died out or gone Home, 
but many still survive to maintain the traditions of 
the old Australian days. 

Among his oldest friends, he counted the Landales, 
the Romes, and the MacArthurs of Camden Park, 
whose family history may be said to be the history 
of New South Wales. John MacArthur, the " Father 
of New South Wales," was the first to introduce wool- 
growing into Australia, the sheep being supplied from 
the flocks of His Majesty's great-great-grandfather, 
King George III, or " Farmer George " as his subjects 
affectionately called him. 

H. H. in partnership with a friend took up a sheep- 
run " just the size of Kent," but did not succeed in 
making a fortune in this venture. Later, when the 
great rush for the tin mines was at its height, he put 
his capital into some smelting works and once again 
Fortune turned her back on him. 

Nothing could daunt H. H., nothing could shake his 
conviction that somehow, somewhere, sooner or later 
he was bound to make his mark. Health was his, 
and while health remained he would work with might 
and main, urged on by a determination that repeated 
failures were powerless to move. 

" If you can make one heap of all your winnings 

And risk it on one turn of pitch and toss 
And lose and start again at your beginnings 

And never breathe a word about your loss. 
If you can force your heart and mind and sinew 

To serve your turn long after they are gone, 
And so hold on while there is nothing in you 

Except the Will which says to them Hold on." 


Realizing at length that his talents did not lie in 
pastoral pursuits, H. H. left the bush for a journalistic 
career at Parramatta. As reporter, sub-editor, and 
editor, he gained considerable experience in various 
branches of his profession, and there is no doubt 
that had he confined his activities to journalism he 
would still have succeeded in making a name. His 
tastes and character led him to seek a permanent home 
among the haunts of men rather than in the solitudes 
of the bush. A certain gregariousness, a restlessness, 
a love of emulation made him better suited for town 
life. Never did he regret, nor could he forget his 
experiences in the bush, but from thenceforth citizen- 
life was to be his choice. From Parramatta he mi- 
grated to Sydney where, as it has before been 
mentioned, he was fortunate enough to be associated 
with Mr Samuel Bennett, and as a result came into 
contact with the leading men of the Colonies. Among 
his early literary friends were Brunton Stephens, 
poet and wit, and Rolf Boldrewood, famous as the 
author of " Robbery under Arms." 

It is sometimes interesting to trace the influences 
that mould the mind and character of a young man. 
The " Grand Old Man " of Australia, Sir Henry Parkes, 
was one of those to whose teaching H. H. owed much 
of his imperialism and his broad outlook. When H. H. 
went to England a correspondence was kept up from 
which the following letter, written from Sydney, in 
1889, has been chosen : 


I should be very ungrateful if I did not thank 
you very warmly for the trouble you took to bring 
the Western Australia proceedings before Mr Buckle. 


It was a thing well done on your part for the good of 

Your account of matters and the relation of men 
in the House of Commons is full of interest to one who 
has had such limited means of seeing the inner life 
of the great body to which you belong. I am, as you 
know, a sincere admirer of Mr Gladstone : it takes 
much to lead me to change in my hero-worship when 
my faith is once formed. But I can admire strength 
and devotion to duty, wherever I find those noble 
qualities in public men. Mr Balfour is certainly making 
a name for himself throughout the Empire. 

Just now you will be noticing our new movement 
for the union of the Colonies. In this country we have 
all the best minds on our side, and I think the cause 
is thoroughly popular. 

I send you under separate cover a batch of papers 
on the subject. 

Yours sincerely, 


Apart from his imperial policy Sir Henry Parkes 
is famous as the originator of that felicitous phrase 
" the crimson thread of kinship." It is curious to 
remember that Sir Henry was the chief opponent of 
the now forgotten Bill to create a Colonial Hereditary 
Peerage which was brought forward by the Legislative 
Council of 1853, and met with almost universal 

Perhaps the man who above all others guided 
the political aspirations of H. H. was Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy, the famous Irishman. His extraordinary 
personality, his picturesque speech, and his wide 
reading had a powerful attraction for H. H.'s en- 
thusiastic nature. Sir Charles had had a wonderful 
career. Born in Ireland in 1816, he, in 1842, started 


the newspaper the " Nation." With O'Connell and five 
others he was tried for treason and sentenced to a fine 
of 50 and nine months' imprisonment. After three 
months in prison the sentence was annulled by appeal 
to the House of Lords. He later represented New 
Ross in the House of Commons, but resigning his 
seat in 1855 he settled in Australia. At the banquet 
given in his honour at Melbourne, he made use of his 
oft-quoted phrase : "I am an Irish rebel to the back- 
bone and spinal marrow." His friends in Victoria 
presented him with a freehold estate in order to qualify 
him for a seat in the Legislative Council, and what 
was even more remarkable the diggers of Ballarat 
pledged themselves to give him an ounce of gold 

Many anecdotes were told of his various elections, 
but the one he preferred was his meeting with a con- 
stituent after he had been elected by a majority of 
one. Grasping his hand Sir Charles said : 

' Then yours was the vote that gained me the 

" Bedad, it was two of thim," replied his enthu- 
siastic compatriot. 

From Sir Charles, H. H. learnt much of his 
sympathy with and admiration for Ireland, and 
throughout many years Sir Charles was a valued 

After making his home in England H. H. returned 
to Sydney every few years, but latterly his visits 
were inevitably saddened by the gaps made by death 
among his old comrades. With the loss of Sir James 
Graham, Sydney could never be the same for him, 
though the kindness and hospitality of Sir Thomas 
and Lady Hughes and others made his last visit as 


enjoyable as the companionship of well-loved friends 
could make it. It was a very great pleasure though 
" it makes me feel very old," he said to meet again, 
as Governor of New South Wales, Sir Gerald Strick- 
land, whose friendship stretched back to the days when 
His Excellency was an undergraduate at Cambridge. 

Throughout his life H. H. preserved a feeling of 
gratitude to Australia, which found a reflection in the 
warm welcome he gave to all Australians visiting 

He had a passionate belief in the future of Australia 
and the vigorous manhood that was inherent in her 
sons. At this hour, when the heroic deeds of the 
Australian contingent at the Dardanelles are thrilling 
every English heart, it is interesting to quote a passage 
from a speech H. H. made at Canterbury over twenty 
years ago : 

' There is no cause to apprehend that England 
will ever be sullied by the foot of an invader, but 
one of our earliest Australian poets has indicated 
Australia as the refuge of Britannia, with her shattered 
trident, in such a case. 

" And, oh Britannia ! should'st them cease to ride 

Despotic Empress of old Ocean's tide ; 
Should thy tam'd Lion spent his former might 

No longer roar, the terror of the fight ; 
Should e'er arrive that dark, disastrous hour, 

When bow'd by luxury, thou yield'st to power ; 
When thou, no longer freest of the free, 

To some proud victor bend'st the vanquished knee, 
May all thy glories in another sphere 

Relume, and shine more brightly still than here ; 
May this thy last-born infant then arise 

To glad thy heart, and greet thy parent eyes ; 
And Australasia float, with flag unfurl'd, 

A new Britannia in another world ! " 


The poem is by William Charles Wentworth, and 
was written in 1824 when the memory was still vivid 
of the threatened Napoleonic invasion. 

Who is to be the poet of Australia's devotion and 
sacrifice to the Empire to-day ? 



" In countless myriads to and fro 
These fateful missives come and go. 
Weaving like shuttles as they fly 
The web of human destiny. 

Letters of business, gossip, love : 
An undistinguishable drove, 
Until you break the seal and then 
They make or mar the lives of men." 


WE have it on the authority of Mr E. V. 
Lucas that the first letter known to 
history is that sent by King David, 
conveying his request that Uriah the 
Hittite might be set in the forefront of the battle. 
It is a far cry from Judea to Mount Pleasant, and it 
would need a more ingenious pen than mine to trace 
the evolution of the modern post office from its Hebraic 
origin. However, I give an interesting extract from 
" Stuart Life and Manners " by P. F. W. Ryan : l 

" In England the first post office was established in 
1635. It was the official recognition of a system 
which had been growing up for generations, a system 
in which the common carrier was the first, the most 
primitive link, a system in which he was long to con- 
tinue an indispensable auxiliary. A horse-post and 
foot-post were now, however, organized with the 
object of providing regular and speedy means of 
communication between all quarters of the kingdom. 

1 Reprinted by courtesy of the Publishers, Messrs Methuen. 



" The horse-post rode from stage to stage, changing 
his steed at the appointed resting-places. As he 
galloped along over the ill-cultivated and sparsely- 
populated country-side, he from time to time waked 
the echoes of the lonely wastes with a brave flourish 
on his horn, warning the inhabitants of his coming. 
Eagerly, far and wide, did they strain their ears to 
catch that welcome blast, and, having heard it, from 
grange and farmstead and hovel, moved by common 
emotions, gentle and simple streamed to cross-roads 
and wayside hostelry, hopeful that the courier would 
not send them away with empty hands. When 
communication was beset with so many difficulties 
and dangers, months and even years sometimes elapsed 
without tidings coming from the wanderer to those 
he had left behind. Fond hopes that over and over 
again had been disappointed revived as the postman's 
horn rang over hill and dale, penetrating to the great 
heart of the castle hall and to the cheerless hovel, 
where sire or dame, or wife or sweetheart, cherished 
the image of some dear one battling for fame at the 
palisades, or for wealth on distant seas. 

"The despatch of letters to-day is an automatic 
affair. The machine is human, but it is a machine 
none the less. But in the seventeenth century every 
step exacted intelligence and resource. The postal 
system depended, too, for its success upon the honesty 
and goodwill and energy of an immense number of 
people who were independent, almost entirely, of 
anything in the nature of supervision. If one desired 
to send a letter to some remote town in Yorkshire, 
one went to Ludgate, then to the Bell Savage Inn close 
by, and there entrusted it to the carrier for the county 
in question. Or going to St John Street and there 
entering the Rose and Crown, one found regular post 
for that shire. The messenger from London would 
not penetrate into by-ways. Each county had its 
system of foot-posts, which linked the outlying dis- 


tricts with its chief towns and with the great high 
roads. The London courier, pressing on to his 
terminus, was relieved of packets for remote regions 
by the local postman, who in turn passed them from 
hand to hand to their destination. In somewhat 
similar fashion, though less regularly and smoothly, 
letters intended for Wales or Scotland or Ireland 
were carried over the long and tedious journey to 
the hands for which they were laboriously indited. 
Worcester and Chester were centres whence the Welsh 
post started, while Berwick was the natural centre of 
distribution for North Britain. 

" The horse-post was a comparatively swift service, 
and where packets of value were in question, more 
to be depended on than the carrier or foot-post, if 
the highwaymen did not cut short the journey." 

In 1840 Rowland Hill established Inland Penny 
Postage, the first great step that was to make the 
British Post Office the finest in the world. At this 
distance of time it is hard to realize what such an 
innovation meant to the poorer classes, nor how much 
it did to sweeten and brighten their lives. Sir Row- 
land's scheme was opposed by critics prophesying a 
loss of revenue, but he lived to see their arguments 

Without detracting from the valuable work of 
Elihu Burritt, it may be mentioned that he himself 
explained that when he advocated Ocean Penny 
Postage he meant in reality threepenny postage : 
one penny for England, one penny for the ship, and one 
penny for the land of destination. 

The cause that led to H. H. first becoming inter- 
ested in cheapening postal communication is almost 
too well known to bear repetition. When quite a 


young man, he was waiting in a village post office, 
and there his notice was attracted by an old woman 
in deep distress. She had just learnt that the postage 
to Australia was sixpence, and was therefore unable 
to post the letter she had written to her son. H. H. 
paid the money for her, and many months later he 
heard that the son had sent 5 to his mother, and had 
begun to write home regularly. 

Later on, when H. H. was living in the wilds of 
the Australian Bush, he was able to appreciate the 
advent of the English mail. He knew as other exiles 
know the bitter disappointment of riding into the 
township, perhaps thirty or forty miles distant, only 
to find there was no letter from home. In those days 
the heavy postage was a consideration for those in 
England, and a consideration that frequently deprived 
the emigrant of a letter. H. H. was fond of quoting 
A. B. Patterson's verse descriptive of a Way-Back 
postal service : 

" Your letters and exchanges 
Come by chance across the ranges, 
Where a wiry young Australian 

Leads a pack horse once a week. 
And the good news grows by keeping, 
And you're spared the pain of weeping 
Over bad news when the Mail-man 

Drops the letter in the creek." 

It was in 1886, soon after he entered Parliament, 
that H. H. moved a resolution in the House of Commons 
inviting the Government to enter into negotiations 
with other Governments with a view to the establish- 
ment of a Universal System of Penny Postage. The 
motion was opposed by the Government, on financial 
grounds, and was defeated. The whole idea was 


looked upon as that of a visionary and a dreamer. 
The Hon. Member who seconded the resolution was 
so carried away by his enthusiasm that he bashed 
down the tall hat over the eyes of the Member sitting 
below him an unfortunate occurrence that never fails 
to evoke merriment from both sides of the House. 
Such was the inauspicious opening of the campaign. 
His resolution indeed was defeated, but not so H. H. 
He began a crusade that was to last the remainder of 
his life. He travelled all over the world preaching 
Penny Postage, in season and out of season, and 
leaving no stone unturned that might directly or in- 
directly further his object. 

In this brief summary, I despair of giving any 
adequate description of the persistent warfare waged 
against red-tape and officialdom. Only those in H. H/s 
immediate circle could know the bitter hostility and 
ridicule he met with in quarters from which he might 
reasonably have expected support. Worse still, he 
had to overcome the absolute apathy that pervaded 
the public mind on all questions of the post office. 
Well might he exclaim with Macaulay, " There is 
more interest taken over the murder of a single police- 
man in Whitechapel than in a war with China." 
It was a red-letter day in H. H.'s career when the 
"Times" came to his support and lent its powerful 
influence to the cause. Strong leaders were written 
advocating Imperial Penny Postage, and their loyal 
and generous support throughout the years did 
much to shorten the battle and to snatch a victory 
in the teeth of opposition. 

Fortunately, H. H. had to an unusual extent the 
gift of journalism, a gift which enabled him to present 
his case in a manner that was interesting to the outside 


public. Although he had at his finger tips unlimited 
statistics, he always endeavoured to illustrate his 
facts with some striking picture of common life : the 
lonely settler reading his Christmas mail, or the old 
folks at home receiving a money order from their 
son abroad. 

By 1890, he had succeeded in reducing international 
postage from sixpence to twopence halfpenny, a 
compromise that found little favour in the eyes of 
the reformer, who considered twopence halfpenny 
an inconvenient sum for a nation that does not use 
decimal coinage. 

In granting permission for the reprinting of a 
passage from his book, Sir Charles Bruce writes : 

" The present peril of the Empire is an eminently 
appropriate moment for the publication of reminis- 
cences of Sir John Henniker Heaton. They afford 
encouragement in reminding us what can be and has 
been accomplished by one single man, by sincere, 
strenuous, and steadfast devotion to one imperial 
cause ; and above all, the circumstances of the war 
bring home to every household the use and service 
of cheap communication by post and wire." 

The passage referred to is taken from that monu- 
mental work of Imperialism, ' ' The Broad Stone of 
Empire," by Sir Charles Bruce, G.C.M.G., which gives 
the following account of the fight for Penny Postage : 

" In July, 1895, Lord Salisbury formed his second 
government, and the appointment of Mr Chamberlain 
as Colonial Secretary was announced, the Duke of 
Norfolk being Postmaster-General. In February, 
1896, Mr Henniker Heaton laid before Mr Chamberlain 
the case for Imperial Penny Postage. His opening 
words were : 


' It is already apparent that you have set before 
yourself the task of giving effect, so far as may be 
practicable, to that feeling in favour of closer union 
between the mother country and the colonies, which 
is growing in intensity all over the Empire. 

" ' . . . What we want is some cheap and ready 
means of bridging over the chasm of distance between 
our people and the millions of their colonial kindred, 
of restoring the broken arch in their communications 
and the severed link in their sympathies, of weaving 
the innumerable delicate threads of private and family 
affection into a mighty strand that shall bind the 
Empire together, and resist any strain from our foes 
or the Fates. We want it now, while we are threatened ; 
now while crafty rivals would replace us, and our 
wares and our rule ; now while our far-off kinsmen 
are showing us in touching and inspiring fashion their 
loyalty to the Queen and their love for the Old Country. 
Such a measure as we are discussing would be instantly 
understood as Britannia's reply to all this love and 
loyalty ; not only in colonial exchanges and market- 
places, but wherever a British axe rang in a clearing, 
or a British hunter stalked the wilds ; aye, and in the 
closets of European statesmen, too. The time is 
opportune ; all we want is a Minister who will seize 
the opportunity from which our Post Office has turned 

"This appeal was not thrown away. Next year, 
on the occasion of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee, the 
colonial Premiers were assembled in London, and 
met Mr Chamberlain on June 24th, 1897, when the 
English Minister made the following memorable 
declaration : 

" ' I should also mention the desire which is widely 
felt, and which I share, for an improved postal com- 
munication with the colonies. I believe that that 
matter rests entirely with the colonies themselves, 
and that they have revenue difficulties in the matter 


which have hitherto prevented us from coming to any 
conclusion. But I confess that I think that one of 
the very first things to bind together the sister nations 
is to have the readiest and the easiest possible com- 
munication between their several units, and as far 
as this country is concerned I believe we should be 
quite ready to make any sacrifice of revenue that may 
be required in order to secure a universal penny post 
throughout the Empire/ 

" The Conference of colonial Premiers was followed 
in the same year by a quinquennial Congress of the 
Postal Union at Washington. At this Congress the 
foreign delegates, keenly alive to the fact that every 
reduction of postage must develop British commerce, 
voted against a Postal Union penny-rate as one man. 
The British Post Office at once took advantage of 
the opportunity to revive a suggestion made originally 
by Sir Rowland Hill in 1837, and renewed by Sir 
James Fergusson in 1891. They proposed to the 
Colonial Post Offices the establishment of an imperial 
twopenny postage rate. The response of Canada 
to this proposal was the announcement that from 
January ist, 1898, the Canadian domestic rate of ijd. 
would extend to correspondence to every part of the 
Empire. The British Post Office protested that this 
could not be done without the consent of the rest of 
the Empire ; and, still hoping to force its twopenny 
rate on the colonies, it proposed a Conference on the 

" This Conference met in London, at the Westminster 
Palace Hotel, on June 28th, and on July 5th and I2th, 
1898. The delegates included the Duke of Norfolk 
as Postmaster-General (Chairman), and an imposing 
array of Postmasters-General and representatives from 
the colonies and India. It was the only Conference 
of Postmasters-General of the Empire that has ever 
been held in London. For the following account of 
the proceedings I am indebted to Mr Henniker Heaton. 


" At the first meeting the Secretary of the Post 
Office set forth the familiar objections of the Depart- 
ment to the penny-rate ; and the inference naturally 
drawn by the colonial delegates was that the Home 
Government had receded from Mr Chamberlain's 
offer. The Australian delegates accordingly announced 
that they could not accept any reduction of postage. 
This roused the delegates of South Africa, who offered 
to support a uniform penny-rate ; and Mr Mulock, 
for Canada, instantly closed with their proposal. 

"The British officials then put up the Duke of 
Norfolk to recommend the delegates, in a fatherly way, 
to compromise their conflicting views by accepting 
the happy medium of the twopenny rate. Mr Mulock, 
however, formally proposed penny postage for all 
parts of the Empire that might be disposed to accept it. 

" At the third meeting the attitude of the Home 
Delegates to the question of imperial postage had 
undergone a transformation. The Duke of Norfolk 
finally announced that the Government gave its un- 
qualified support to the proposal of imperial penny 
postage. And so ended the struggle between Mr 
Chamberlain and the Post Office." 

July of 1898 saw the initiation, though not the 
completion, of penny postage throughout the Empire. 

In later years H. H., when asked what was the 
happiest time of his life, invariably spoke of the moment 
when he scribbled the following hasty notes to his 
wife : 

Urgent and Express. 


3 P.M. izth July, 1898. 

I think we have won. The message to me 
confidentially is " I think you will be pleased, although 
not all you wanted." J. HENNIKER HEATON. 


Urgent and Express. 


9 P.M. i2thjuly, 1898. 

I have heard the following will appear in the 
morning papers : " Imperial Penny Postage for the 
Empire, except Australia, has been agreed to." 
It is almost too good news. 

Affectionately yours, 


To the Duke of Norfolk, as Postmaster-General, 
fell the duty of conveying to Queen Victoria the news 
of the introduction of Imperial Penny Postage. 

" When does this come into force ? ' inquired 
Her Majesty. 

" We thought of the Prince's birthday," replied 
the Duke. 

In an instant the Queen, ever mindful of her 
supreme authority, had drawn herself up. 

" And what Prince ? " she inquired in her most 
icy tone. 

But the Duke was quite equal to the emergency. 

" The Prince of Peace, ma'am on Christmas 
Day," he replied quickly. 

Thus it came about that penny postage was estab- 
lished on Christmas Day, 1898. 

H. H. writing to a correspondent, Mr John Wilson, 
of Birmingham, expressed himself in these words : 

" When the story of how we won imperial penny 
postage comes to be written, it will be found that had 
it not been for your great representative Mr Chamber- 
lain we should have had to wait many years for the 
beneficent reform. I never realized the strength 
of purpose his sympathy for the poor, the hard- 


working people of this country with relations abroad 
until the opportunity came for benefiting them by 
means of cheap postage. The mandarins at St Martin's- 
le-Grand had the worst half-hour they ever had 
in their lives in trying to measure swords with the 
powerful Minister. 

" Mr Chamberlain determined that the people should 
have the boon, and he was ably seconded by my 
friends Mr Mulock, P.M.G. of Canada, Sir David 
Tennant, Agent-General for the Cape of Good Hope 
together with Sir Walter Peace, Agent-General fo. 

H. H. never felt satisfied that sufficient credit was 
given to Mr Chamberlain for his share in the establish- 
ment of penny postage. Some words to that effect 
he wrote to Mr Chamberlain and received the following 
reply : 


I do not care a brass button who gets the 
credit for the postal reform. The great thing is that 
the matter has been at last brought to a satisfactory 
stage, and I think that you and I are well content 
with the results without wishing for special notice. 

Believe me, 

Yours truly, 


A leader in " The Times " paid a remarkable tribute 
to the success of H. H.'s labours : 

" Henniker Heat on is in reality the Marconi of 
this new telegraphy of hearts. By bringing the 
postage of the Empire within the reach of the poorest 
he has rendered vocal innumerable chords which have 
long been dumb, and acclaimed the unity of the Empire 
by the responsive chorus of myriads of gladdened 


hearts. Christmas is a peculiarly fitting season for 
the spread of these glad tidings throughout the Empire, 
for, after all, the true spirit of Christmas is the out- 
going of human brotherhood and affection. We do 
no more than express the sentiments of Englishmen 
in all parts of the Empire when we offer Mr Henniker 
Heaton a hearty Christmas congratulation on the 
happy inauguration of a really great stroke of Imperial 

That no man is a prophet in his own country H. H. 
was destined to prove. It was not until 1905 and after 
the most strenuous fight that H. H. was able to post 
a penny letter to Australia, and it was in 1911 that he 
had the pleasure of receiving the first letter from 
Australia bearing a penny stamp. 

The story of how we won penny postage to Australia 
is set out in a chapter by itself, and bears eloquent 
testimony to that great Imperialist, Sir Joseph Ward, 
and the splendid work accomplished by Mr Austin 
Chapman, Postmaster-General of Australia. Not con- 
tent with his successful advocacy of imperial penny 
postage, H. H. was engaged, in 1905, in establishing 
a league for universal penny postage. The following 
appeal was sent out in his name and secured enthusi- 
astic replies from every quarter of the globe. 



Aug. 10, 1905. 

It is intended to form a League for the estab- 
lishment of Universal Penny Postage, so that any 
inhabitant of our planet, white, black, or yellow, 


may be enabled for the sum of one penny to communi- 
cate with any other, at the lowest possible rate and 
the highest attainable speed : Englishman with French- 
man, German, Italian, or Russian ; European with 
American ; Asiatic with Australian or African ; so 
that when one soul has something to say to another 
neither colour, nor religion, nor greed, nor diplomacy, 
nor national antipathy, nor latitude, nor longitude, 
nor poverty, nor any other barrier shall stand between 

The hour has struck for this grand yet simple 
assertion of the brotherhood of nations ; of a change 
which threatens no interest, and benefits all mankind. 
Since 1898, when Imperial Penny Postage was intro- 
duced, our outward mails have nearly doubled. Every 
Friday some 250,000 British letters pass through 
France and Italy for India, Hong-Kong, and Austral- 
asia 12,000 miles. The postage on each of these 
letters is id. By the same boat a few British letters 
are carried for residents in Calais 21 miles ; and on 
these letters the postage is 2|d. ! By what perverse 
ingenuity can such a distinction be justified ? Or why 
should a letter to New York cost 2jd. and another in 
the same bag be carried through that city and 1000 
miles into Canada for id. ? 

That thought can be fairly taxed at a custom- 
house none will affirm. Opium can be weighed, 
whiskey tested. But what scales are delicate enough 
to weigh the products of the human mind ? That an 
English letter should be taxed because it is addressed 
to a Frenchman is a policy unworthy of the age. 
This is not an argument for the benefit of the 
" foreigner," since a letter benefits not only the 
addressee, but even more the sender. And if so, can 
it be contended that 10,000 letters sent to Canadians 
benefit us more than as many addressed to Americans ! 
I maintain that the trade and commerce resulting from 
cheap postage will amply compensate for any initial loss. 


That the moment for action has arrived is indicated 
by the fact that my friend, Sir J. G. Ward, Postmaster- 
General for New Zealand, is to move a Resolution 
for Universal Penny Postage in the Postal Union 
Congress at Rome next year. It cannot be too soon 
or too clearly shown that this doughty reformer is 
speaking with the public opinion of the mother country 
behind him. 

To you, as one of those to whom our people look 
for guidance in great questions, I appeal for sympathy 
and support. I ask you to enrol your name in our 
League, and, if convenient, to give us a few words of 

Without venturing to introduce the Sovereign's 
name in this appeal, we may confidently assume that 
no movement which aims at bringing the peoples of 
the earth into more frequent and closer correspondence 
and friendly intercourse can be indifferent to King 
Edward VII., and that we have His Majesty's silent 
good wishes. 

I am, 

Yours faithfully, 


H. H.'s insatiable demands brought forth a mild 
protest from the Postmaster-General, Lord Stanley : 

" I must say I was rather in hopes that, when I had 
met your wishes regarding Australian penny postage, 
I should not be called upon during my time of office 
again to enter into a struggle with you. However, 
I am quite sure we can fight and still remain friends." 

Lord Roberts wrote : 


I have received your letter about the establish- 
ment of universal penny postage, and am very glad 
you are moving in the matter. 


I shall with pleasure enrol my name in your league, 
and I trust that your efforts in this direction may be 
as successful as they were in 1898 in getting imperial 
penny postage established, which has proved such 
a boon to the Empire. 

Believe me, 

Yours very truly, 


Sir Wilfrid Lawson sent the following lines 

Dear Henniker Heaton 

You never are beaten, 

But stick to your project like bricks. 

And this your last dream 

Most worthy I deem, 

So my name you may freely affix. 

What a world it would be, 

Which some may yet see, 

When a penny such wonders will work. 

And think of our delight 

To write day and night 

To American, Frenchman, or Turk. 

What scope there will be 

For fellows like me 

To send letters, and poems, and stories, 

Including full streams (reams) 

On that best of all themes, 

A tremendous abuse of the Tories. 

But dear Mr Heaton, 

This world you will sweeten 

By the project you now have in view. 

It is perfectly clear 

Twill bring nations near, 

And what better thing can you do ? 

From the Dean of Norwich : 


Universal Penny Postage is due to humanity. 
England, as the mother of millions, should facilitate 
the commerce of her children with those of all lands. 
Interchange of thought smooths the angles of insular- 
ity, clears the sympathy ; it deepens and strengthens 
mutual respect. It will be the meanest expression of 
the peddling spirit if the broad and bright reforms 
you have initiated, and intelligence now desires, are 
hindered by official parsimony. The great England 
of to-day should set this matter going. Other nation- 
alities would follow her lead. The old song of Deborah 
should be chanted as your enterprise expands, " The 
leaders took the lead and the people willingly followed." 
We should not suffer this honour to be won by any other 
power on earth. You have done wonders, and I 
heartily hope the blessing of Heaven may crown your 
untiring diligence, your intelligent enthusiasm, your 
inspiring courage, and your unifying universalism. 
I'll gratefully join the League. 

Ever yours, 


That H. H. did not live to see the adoption of his 
cherished ideal of Penny Postage to France must be 
accounted almost a tragedy, so dearly longed for was 
this project. 

On July i4th, 1908, H. H. led a large deputation 
to the Prime Minister to ask that Penny Postage might 
be established between France and England. Mr 
D. V. Pirie, M.P., handed in a list of 410 members of 
Parliament pledged to vote for Anglo-French penny 
postage. He stated that the list comprised 210 
Liberals, 100 Unionists, 50 Nationalists and 50 Labour 



1. There are 42,000,000 people in Great Britain 
and Ireland, and 40,000,000 in France. A narrow 
channel 21 miles across separates these two great and 
friendly nations. Surely the British and French 
postal authorities still have energy enough to bridge 
this chasm a chasm stretching apart into the blue 
distance, like the two sections of the gigantic Roman 
aqueduct in the Campagna that want a central con- 
necting arch, or like the two sections of an alpine 
tunnel before they are united. 

Penny or ten centimes postage exists throughout 
the British and French Empires, embracing a popu- 
lation of 490,000,000 and an area of 14,600,000 square 

2. At present the postage is one penny to Fiji, 
11,000 miles from London ; and the postage to the 
Society Islands, 10,500 miles from Paris, is ten 
centimes, or one penny. Yet it is 2jd, or 25 centimes, 
between Dover and Calais, 21 miles. We are like 
people conducting two parallel railways under rival 
ownership. The commercial and social benefit pre- 
dicted from a costly Channel Tunnel could be secured 
at once by a stroke of the pen, establishing an Anglo- 
French Postal Union without alarming any military 

3. Last year we sent to France 12,600,000 letters, 
and received from France 12,000,000 letters. We sent 
to France 1,500,000 Ib. of printed matter, and received 
from her 1,092,000 Ib. of printed matter. There were 
also sent through France to and from the East and 
Australasia, 24,000,000 British letters and 8,200,000 Ib. 


of printed papers. The postage on the letters to and 
from France near at hand was ij times heavier than 
on those sent through France to Australasia, 12,000 
miles. But the rate of postage on the printed papers 
was the same from England to France, as from England 
to Australia. Yet mail-bags containing letters, and 
mail-bags containing printed papers, are not distin- 
guishable except by experts, and receive exactly the 
same care and treatment. 

4. The imports from and exports to each other 
of England and France amount to 69,000,000 
(1,725,000,000 fr.) The present high foreign postage 
is in effect a tax on the exports of each country 
injurious to both. 

5. Under Clause 21 of the Postal Union any two 
States might establish lower postage between them- 
selves by forming a Restricted Union. Several pairs 
of States (e.g. Austria and Germany, Canada and 
the United States, Mexico and the United States) have 
formed such unions with penny postage. Why should 
not England and France form one ? 

6. The French postal authorities have expressed 
a desire to discuss postal rates with our Post Office. 
The British officials have admitted that the 2jd. rate 
is too high, but still wish to charge 2d., or twice as 
much for sending a letter across the Straits of Dover 
to Calais as across St. George's Channel to Dublin, 
or across the Mediterranean to Algiers. The postage 
level being the same on both sides, the Channel tax 
is as absurd as would be locked gates in the Suez 
Canal, as exasperating as would be a toll-gate in 

7. The Anglo-French Postal Union, similar to 
the Austrian-German, American-Canadian, and other 


unions, would not require a single additional ship, 
train, horse, cart, or man. The machinery is now 
ample. The 12,000,000 letters from France would 
not count beside the 2,624,000,000 inland letters now 
dealt with by our British Post Office, more than an 
additional rivulet flowing into the Thames. 

8. No less than 780,000 passengers cross the 
Channel every year all good customers of the Post 
Office. British children to the number of many 
thousands are educated in France, and we have colonies 
of English residing in that sunny clime ; while there 
are also thousands of French people in our foggy land, 
who would all write five letters at a penny for one letter 
at the present high rate. 

9. Penny postage would cost neither country one 
penny more than is at present expended. It would 
bring a rich harvest of trade and good feeling. The 
estimated minimum increase of letters would cover 
the cost in a remarkably short period. 

10. An Anglo-French Postal Union would be a 
graceful, opportune, and popular demonstration of 
" V entente cordiale," a practical, substantial fulfilment 
of the kindly aspirations of the two peoples, so elo- 
quently expressed by representative men ; a stimulus 
to commerce, a boon to all, a memorial of the greatest 
achievement of Edward the Peacemaker. 

When, in 1910, Lord Blyth issued a circular letter 
inviting Members of the House of Lords to express 
their views on Franco-British Penny Postage, 230 
signified their desire for the reform ; and Lord Dart- 
mouth in his reply summed up the matter succinctly : 

" For those will write 
Who never wrote before. 
And those who wrote 
Will only write the more." 


In the same year, H. H. and Lord Blyth visited 
Paris on a mission that created great interest and 
enthusiasm. Before leaving London they had an 
interview with the French Ambassador, M. Cambon, 
who expressing his fervent good wishes for the cause, 
gave them letters of introduction to the chief French 
ministers. On arrival in Paris, H. H. and Lord Blyth 
were met by a body of members of the Chamber of 
Commerce, led by Sir Joseph Walton. The French 
Postmaster-General, M. Brian, M. Emil Dupont, and, 
in fact, every Minister approached, and every man of 
any position, warmly advocated the immediate adoption 
of Franco-British Penny Postage. It is almost in- 
conceivable that a great country like England should 
allow the consideration of a possible loss of revenue to 
outweigh the advantages of the only practical proof 
of the entente cordiale. 

Colonel Sir Arthur Davidson wrote, from Biarritz, 
on the 24th March 1910 : 


Many thanks for your letter and enclosures. 
Although, as you say, the question of Penny Postage 
between France and England is a non-party matter, 
there are, still, possible international jealousies and 
difficulties ambushed under such an arrangement : 
and this being the case, it would be a delicate matter 
for the King to speak to the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer on a question affecting France and England 
only : when other nations Germany, for instance, 
might wish to retain the present 2jd. rate, and would 
resent the proposed arrangement as interfering with 
the International postal balance. 

This would cause a complication in which it is 
best that the King should not be included, or have 


You are certainly tireless about postal reform, 
and have good reason to be gratified with what you 
have already obtained. 

I remain, 

Yours very truly, 


In this year 1916, it is not too much to hope that a 
few months' time will see the adoption of this necessary 

In 1908 H. H. achieved another triumph in the 
introduction of penny postage to the United States. 
The battle was not won without a long and weary 
campaign. In 1890 he visited America to confer 
with the Postmaster-General, the Honourable John 
Wanamaker, on the possibility of establishing an 
Anglo-America Penny Post. The final adoption was 
largely due to Mr Wanamaker's advocacy and practical 
help long after he had ceased to be Postmaster-General. 
The names of Mr Roosevelt, Mr Andrew Carnegie, 
the American Ambassador, Mr Whitelaw Reid, Lord 
Blyth, Mr Baxter, and last and chief, Mr Meyer, will 
be held in grateful memory by the letter- writing public 
of the two nations. 

On July 3rd, 1906, a deputation of 108 members 
of the House of Commons, 24 ex-Members, Senator 
the Hon. Nicholas Longworth of the United States, 
many Peers, Bankers, and Presidents of Chamber of 
Commerce assembled in the Grand Committee Room 
of the House of Commons to meet the Right Hon. 
H. H. Asquith, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the 
Right Hon. Sydney Buxton, M.P., Postmaster-General. 1 
The Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Postmaster- 

1 Viscount Buxton. 


General expressed themselves as favourable to the 
object, but regretted that the finances of the country 
did not then admit of the additional expenditure. 
America was anxious from the first to adopt Anglo- 
American Penny Postage, but England held back on the 
plea of loss of revenue. An offer was made by H. H., 
Lord Blyth, Mr Andrew Carnegie, the late Sir Edward 
Sassoon, and Mr John Wanamaker to guarantee the 
loss of revenue for the first five years ; but this offer 
was refused. 

In 1907, H. H. was travelling in Australia when 
he received a letter from Mr George Meyer, the pro- 
gressive P.M.G. of the United States, expressing his 
anxiety for the establishment of an Anglo-American 
Penny Post. Immediately on receipt of this letter, 
H. H. sent a long cable to Mr Meyer, and caught the 
next ship back to England in order to pursue the 

In 1908 the Franco-British Exhibition was held 
in London. Lord Blyth was Chairman of the 
Organizing Committee, and H. H. suggested to him 
that it would be a fitting moment while President 
Fallieres was in London to approach the P.M.G. with 
renewed demands for a Franco-British Penny Post. 
Accordingly Lord Blyth who, following H. H.'s 
action in the House of Commons, had prepared a 
similar list of members of the House of Lords in favour 
of Penny Postage to France addressed a letter to 
the P.M.G. strongly urging its adoption. The P.M.G., 
Mr Sydney Buxton, wrote to him privately saying that 
it was a most inopportune moment as the P.O. was 
already considering penny postage to America and 
the exploiting also of the claims of France would 
jeopardize both projects. 


. ^ -p, 

" &~t /&n>yiy /^U-ffft 



Lord Blyth, after conferring with H. H., wrote 
to the P.M.G. that under those circumstances he 
withdrew all demands for Franco-British Penny Postage 
as he considered America should come first ; at the 
same time he wrote to H. H. the words which became 
historic in all future postal campaigns, " One step 
enough for me." 

Mr Sydney Buxton, who had consistently sup- 
ported the movement, was at the same time sub- 
mitting the question to his colleagues of the Cabinet, 
though naturally he was not at liberty to mention the 
fact to Lord Blyth or to H. H. 

A few days later, at a luncheon given at the Guild- 
hall to meet President Fallieres, Mr Buxton came up 
to Lord Blyth to tell him that his hopes of establishing 
Penny Postage with America were at an end, as, 
although he had cabled to America on behalf of the 
British Government that England was now ready 
for its adoption, he had received no reply. 

Lord Blyth immediately got into telephone com- 
munication with H. H., who suggested they should see 
the American Ambassador, Mr Whitelaw Reid, without 
delay. At ten o'clock the next morning, H. H. and 
Lord Blyth called on Mr Whitelaw Reid, and showed 
him the whole correspondence that had taken place 
over a course of years. Mr Whitelaw Reid had always 
been a strong supporter of the movement and offered 
his services without reserve. 

' What do you wish me to do ? " he asked of H. H, 
' We want you to send a telegram to the President 
to the effect that if America does not immediately 
agree to the adoption of Penny Post, France will 
obtain the boon before our English-speaking people," 
replied H. H. 



That Mr Whitelaw Reid more than fulfilled his 
promise may be gathered from the fact that two days 
later H. H. received a private letter from the P.M.G., 
stating his intention of making an interesting announce- 
ment in the House of Commons the following day : 


In all probability I shall utter a statement 
at end of questions to-morrow (Wednesday) which 
will be of great interest to you. 

I let you know as you may like to be present. 

Yours ever, 


Mr Whitelaw Reid also wrote to Lord Blyth : 


Now that the matter is substantially settled 
I think I may, without impropriety, tell you confiden- 
tially, and authorize you to mention to Mr Henniker 
Heaton, that I received a despatch on May 3oth 
from the Secretary of State, in reply to the communi- 
cation I promised you to make. In this Mr Root said 
that the Postmaster-General was then absent for the 
week-end but the understanding was that no obstacle 
remained to an agreement upon a new postal arrange- 
ment with Great Britain on his return June ist. I 
think Mr Buxton will also be ready to give you some 
cheerful information soon. 

Believe me, 

Yours sincerely, 


On the night of September soth, 1908, H. H. 
dined with one of his sons at the United Service Club, 
and sat, after dinner, in a fever of impatience as the 
hands of the clock slowly crawled round to midnight. 
As the clock finished striking H. H. had the satisfaction 


of posting half a dozen letters to America bearing the 
penny stamp. It was no small gratification to H. H. 
to receive a letter of congratulation from Mr Roosevelt 
posted likewise in America just after midnight. Some 
time later H. H. met Mr Roosevelt at the Guildhall 
in London. 

" It was a very great pleasure to me to post you 
that letter," said Mr Roosevelt. 

' Yes," replied H. H., " but why did you put a 
twopence-halfpenny stamp on it? ' 

A letter from Mark Twain ran as follows : 


I do hope you will succeed to your heart's 
desire, in your cheap cablegram campaign, and I feel 
sure you will. Indeed your cheap postage victory, 
achieved in spite of a quarter century of determined 
opposition, is good and national prophecy that you 
will. Wireless, not being as yet imprisoned in a 
Chinese wall of private cash and high placed and 
formidable influence, will come to your aid and make 
your new campaign briefer and easier than the other 
one was. 

Now then, after uttering very serious words, am 
I privileged to be frivolous for a moment ? 

When you shall have achieved cheap telegraphy, 
are you going to employ it for just your own selfish 
profit and other people's pecuniary damage, the way 
you are doing with your cheap postage ? You get 
letter-postage reduced to 2 cents an ounce. Then 
you mail me a 4 ounce letter with a 2 cent stamp 
on it, and I have to pay the rest of the freight at this 
end of the line. I return your envelope for inspection, 
look at it, stamped, in one place, is a vast " T," and 
under it the figures of " 40 " and under those figures 
appears an " L," a sinister and suspicious and myster- 


ious L. In another place, stamped within a circle, 
in offensively large capitals, you find the words 

" DUE 8 CENTS." 

Finally, in the midst of a desert space up nor 
nor eastward from that circle you find a figure " 3 " 
of quite unnecessarily aggressive and insolent magni- 
tude and done with a blue pencil, so as to be as 
conspicuous as possible. I inquired about these strange 
signs and symbols, of the postman. He said they were 
P.O. Department signals for his instruction. 

" Instruction for what ? " 

' To hog extra postage/' 

"Is it so ? Explain. Tell me about the large 
T and the 40." 

" It's short for take 40 or as we postman say, 
hog 40." 

" Go on, please, while I think up some words to 
swear with." 

" Due 8 means, hog 8 more." 

" Continue." 

" The blue pencil 3 was an afterthought. There 
aren't any stamps for afterthoughts the sums vary 
according to inspiration, and they whirl in the one 
that suggests itself at the last moment. Sometimes 
they go several times higher than this one. This one 
only means hog 3 cents more. And so if you've got 
51 cents about you, or can borrow it - ." 
' Tell me : who gets this corruption ? ' 

" Half of it goes to the man in England who ships 
the letter on short postage, and the other half goes 
to the P.O.D. to protect cheap postage from in- 
augurating a deficit." 

" I can't blame you ; I would say it myself, in 
your place, if these ladies were not present. But 
you see I'm only obeying orders, I can't help myself." 

" Oh, I know it ; I'm not blaming you. Finally, 
what does that L stand f or ? " 


" Get the money, or give limit. It's English, 
you know." 

" Take it and go. It's the last cent I've got in 
the world.." 

After seeing the Oxford pageant file by the grand 
stand, picture after picture, splendor after splendor, 
three thousand five hundred strong, the most moving 
and beautiful and impressive and historically instruc- 
tive show conceivable, you are not to think I would 
miss the London pageant of next year, with its 
shining host of 15,000 historical English men and 
women dug from the musty books of all the vanished 
ages and marching in the light of the sun all alive, 
and looking just as they were used to look ! Mr 
Lascelles spent yesterday here on the farm, and told 
me all about it. I shall be in the middle of my 75th 
year then, and interested in pageants for personal and 
prospective reasons. 

I beg you to give my best thanks to the Bath Club 
for the offer of its hospitalities, but I shall not be able 
to take advantage of it, because I am to be a guest 
in a private house during my stay in London. 

Sincerely yours, 




" The Post Office Annual Report gives one great food for thought, for it 
shows that every man, woman, and child in the United Kingdom gets on an 
average 120 Postal Packets every year. That is 45,000,000 people get 
5,400,000,000,000. Another interesting fact is that in 1840 the average 
number of letters received by the people of this country was 7, and in 1912 
the average number of letters received by each individual is 70, or ten times 
more. I do not think the population is more than double that of 1840." 


"W" F I give way to Henniker Heaton on a single 

point he is on my doorstep the next morning 

with fifty more," said Mr Asquith, summing 

JL. up in that one sentence the secret of H. H.'s 

successful warfare. 

H. H. could afford to give his genial laugh when 
acquaintances spoke of him as a " lucky man " a 
phrase chiefly employed by those who sleep while 
others wake, who rest while others toil. 

" Keep on pegging away and you will win," wrote 
the Duke of Argyll, who knew something of H. H.'s 
persistent methods of attack. 

" Be a Paganini play on one string," was H. H.'s 
advice to ambitious young men entering Parliament, 
and he certainly lived up to his teaching. Year after 
year, he fiddled away on his one string outside the 
portals of St Martin's-le-Grand, regardless of all 
requests to move on. Postmasters came and Post- 
masters went, and still that one string called Reform 
sounded through the halls by day, and disturbed 
dreams by night. Postal officials suffering under 



H. H.'s bludgeonings and relentless criticisms must 
have felt there was something almost uncanny in his 
dexterous use of weapons : to-day cudgels and broad- 
swords ; to-morrow ridiculous pin-pricks none the 
less galling. 

The stolid stubborn resistance H. H. met with 
made no more impression on his mind than the solid 
rock can hope to make upon an incoming tide. Sooner 
or later, little by little, the foundations will be washed 
away : to-day a gentle lapping of the waves ; to- 
morrow the breakers bursting in full force. Opposition 
H. H. could and did enjoy, and the reasons given for 
refusing to support his benevolent enterprises were 
sometimes amusing. One writer stated solemnly that 
the fewer opportunities nations had of knowing each 
other, the fewer opportunities would they have of 
quarrelling, and ended by citing Iceland in support 
of this theory. An abusive letter reached H. H. from 
Australia, wherein the writer complained that the 
introduction of penny postage had let loose a flood of 
correspondence from his poor relations in County 
Clare, trying to borrow money from him ! 

That Penny-a-Word Telegrams would further 
destroy the privacy of modern life was the reason 
put forth by Sir Arthur Bignold in a letter to his friend : 

" I must own up to being an ' impossible,' inasmuch 
as my most fervent hope is in the direction of being 
let alone and not improved, and I feel certain that 
an instantaneous penny-a-word telegraph service would 
land me in Hanwell right away. 

" The Postal Service was the beginning of it, for until 
that was established there was a little peace. You 
saw your friend and bade him good-bye, and you could 
not quarrel with him until you met him again. The 


present railway system too by which you are shot 
through the world like so many tons of coal, no one 
caring whether you come or whether you do not, 
except that there may be a certain weight of food 
cooked for you to eat will not bear thinking of, and 
now, when the telegraph system had practically 
destroyed the peace and quiet of life, there are to be 
telephones to complete the charter of human rights. 

To me it's all maddening, and will cause my im- 
mediate retirement to my Scotch mountains, to which, 
thank goodness, there is no legal access at present. 
Believe me to remain, 

Yours very faithfully, 


P.S. Still malgrJ tout I must support you. A. B. 

When H. H. entered Parliament in 1886, he drew 
up a list of sixty reforms for the Postmaster-General 
most of which were adopted ; when he left Parliament 
in 1910, he drew up another list of sixty-two reforms 
one for every year of his life. 

By 1891, H. H. had already been instrumental in 
obtaining : 

i. A saving of 107,000 a year, or a total saving of 
1,070,000, on the cost of conveying mails to India 
and the East during the next ten years. 

2. A saving of 40,000 a year on the De la Rue 
Post Office stationery contract. 

3. A saving of at least 25,000 a year on the Sample 
Parcel Post. Formerly tens of thousands of samples 
were sent from London to Belgium, to be posted back 
to England, and Belgium kept every farthing of the 

4. A saving of at least 30,000 a year in the carriage 
of mails to India, China, and Australia, overland from 
Calais to Brindisi. When H. H. commenced the 


agitation ijd. carriage for every letter was charged 
by the Governments of France and Italy. The charge 
was reduced to less than id. per letter. 

5. The introduction of post cards to and from 

6. The reduction of ocean postage to Australia 
from 6d. to 4d. per letter, and the reduction of postage 
to the Cape of Good Hope from 6d. to 4d. per letter. 

7. Extension of the Parcel Post to France. 

8. Introduction of the Telegraph Money Order into 

9. Further reduction of postage to Australia from 
6d. and 4d. to 2|d. per letter from January ist, 1891. 

In the years that followed H. H. added continually 
to the list of concessions wrung from the G.P.O. 
Perhaps one that gave him most personal satisfaction 
was the abolition of charges on lost or delayed postal 


To the Editor of the " Times." 

SIR, It was with supreme satisfaction I received 
from my bankers this morning a note informing me 
that they had placed to my credit the sum of 75., being 
the amount of two postal orders for 35. 6d. each col- 
lected from His Majesty's Government on Thursday 
fourteen years after issue. 

These two postal orders are familiar to the House 
of Commons, for I have exhibited them frequently 
during debates as examples of Post Office stupidity. 
The law was that any postal order not presented for 
payment within a period of three months of issue 
was subjected to a fine equal to the original amount 
paid for poundage, and so on for each additional 
three months. To the Postmaster-General I pointed 


out that this action was utterly indefensible. I asked 
him to remember that he makes a profit of from 
10,000 to 12,000 a year on lost postal orders, but 
not satisfied with that he levies a heavy commission 
on poundage of postal orders not presented for pay- 
ment within three months. No Shy lock of modern 
times charges interest on money deposited in his 
keeping. Yet on presenting these two postal orders 
for 35. 6d., each drawn on November 5, 1890, the 
Post Office offered to pay them if 75. 2d. was first 
paid for poundage ! The holder had inadvertently 
left them in his desk, and found them two years ago. 
I had to tell our Postmaster-General that no Levantine 
Greek had ever dreamt of such rapacity as exhibited 
by his department in this case that is charging 
100 per cent, for keeping the man's money and profiting 
by it. 

I am glad to say Lord Stanley passed an Act last 
Session abolishing for ever the charge, and only exacting 
one extra poundage for a delayed postal order. I 
have relieved my pocket-book of my old friends, the 
two postal orders, and gone for ever is another legiti- 
mate grievance. 

Your obedient servant, 


October 24th, 1904. 

In looking over old papers of H. H/s it is remark- 
able to see how greatly the relations between him 
and the postal officials were softened under the mellow- 
ing influence of time. Where there was at first only 
bitterness and strife " the severe, the ascetic, the 
impregnable Mr Cecil Raikes " at the end we find 
no small degree of mutual sympathy and the respect 
of worthy antagonists. It may be that the great 
factor in public not less than in private life 
personal acquaintance had something to do with the 


altered state of affairs. Was it not the Bishop of 
London who wrote, " Personal contact is the great 
solvent of all the difficulties in the world." 

However it may be, H. H. numbered among his 
personal friends many of the mandarins of St Martin's- 
le-Grand, and entertained for at least one Postmaster- 
General feelings of warm affection. 

The following obituary notice appeared in " St 
Martin's-le-Grand Magazine," written by the editor, 
Mr E. Bennett. 

" I am quite sure that none of my readers regret 
more sincerely the passing away of Sir Henniker 
Heaton than his old opponents ' the mandarins ' of 
the Post Office. He had in his time troubled us in 
season and out of season, and there was a peculiar 
venom in his methods which hindered rather than 
helped his reforms. But in the eighties and nineties, 
when Sir Henniker was at his best, or his worst, as a 
fighting man, it often seemed, even to those within the 
service, that something dynamic was required to 
upset the non possumus attitude of the Post Office 
administrator, and to bring home to the Treasury 
as well as to the Post Office the fact that the British 
Empire demanded a great deal more from those who 
were running the Department than the point of view 
of a retail shopkeeper. 

" Mr Massingham has spoken of Sir Henniker as 
the ' most terrifically concentrated mind I ever met 
in a Member of Parliament.' That was indeed the 
secret of his success. He was a man who in public 
life had only one subject, and in pursuit of his aims 
he was untiring, obstinate, and often inconsiderate 
to his opponents. 

" During the last few years I have been able to 
claim Sir Henniker as a personal friend and I have 
worked with him in an association unconnected with 


the Post Office. His public appearances gave no 
indication of his private charm. He was a delightful 
companion, an inveterate gossip, and he richly enjoyed 
both hearing and telling good stories. He was as 
staunch to his friends as he was to his policy, and he 
who used the bitterest language about his opponents 
in public was one of the kindest-hearted men I have 
ever met." 

A warm friendship existed between H. H. and 
Sir Neville Borton, Postmaster-General of Egypt, 
and Saba Pasha. It was from the Egyptian Post 
Office that H. H. took the idea of the little red book 
of stamps which is now in use in the British Post 
Office. When these books were first introduced in 
England, two shillings was charged for them, although 
stamps to the face value of only is. njd. were issued, 
a piece of economy on the part of the " meanest and 
greatest Post Office in the world " which brought 
down such vials of wrath from H. H. that the extra 
halfpenny was soon added, and the cost of the book 
was defrayed by using the interleaved pages for 

On October 2nd, 1912, H. H. wrote to Mr Herbert 
Samuel : 


Your charming letter gave me much satis- 
faction. Your removal of petty annoyances, such as 
charging a halfpenny for a two shilling book of stamps, 
and a farthing for a halfpenny post card, entitle you 
to the blessings of the clergy, for men swore a good 
deal at the meanness of St Martin's-le-Grand. I have 
collected the answers of your predecessors for twenty- 
five years declining to grant the concessions you have 
made. I would like to publish the splendid result of 


selling the two - shilling booklet of stamps at face 

With sincere regard, 

Yours most faithfully, 


Speaking of advertisements, a certain world-famous 
pill manufacturer once approached H. H. with an 
offer to pay the G.P.O. 15,000 a year for the privilege 
of printing " Use 's Pills," on every postmark ! 

H. H. made no secret of the fact that he considered 
Mr Herbert Samuel the greatest Postmaster-General 
England has ever had. When Mr Samuel left the 
Post Office, in 1914, H. H. wrote him the following 
letter, from Nice. 


Your leaving the Post Office is to me a calamity. 

The British people lose the best Postmaster-General, 

and I lose a singularly generous and noble-minded 

friend from that Department, far and away the most 

just and able administrator during the past thirty years. 

You have removed scores of petty and worrying 

annoyances made by pettyfogging officials in former 

years. You have taken the first important steps for 

the reduction of telegraph rates to the Continent of 

Europe, and I know that you were on the point of 

carrying penny postage between France and England. 

Most sincerely yours, 



I very much doubt if your new position gives you 
the opportunities you deserve of serving your country 
to its best advantage. 

Health and strength to you in the years to come. 
Your devoted friend, 



As is only fitting, P.M.G.'s seem to have a par- 
ticularly pleasing gift of letter writing : 


My best thanks for your letter of the 5th. 
I hope you spend your days buying halfpenny 
post cards for halfpence, and penny letter-cards for 
pennies ! * 

I will inquire about the charge on telegrams to 
Broadstairs and send you a reply shortly. 

Yours very truly, 



I am glad that at last you have been willing 
to accept an Honour you have certainly well earned 

It is a satisfaction to me to know, and to feel, 
that for so many years, and especially during the 
time I was Postmaster-General, our relations were of 
such a friendly character ; and I was very sorry when 
you left the House. 

At the same time, as I have more than once sug- 
gested to you, I am sure that you never gave sufficient 
credit to the desire on the part of the officials of the 
Post Office not to speak of the Postmaster-General 
to carry out useful and satisfactory reforms. Every 
suggested proposal is not, of course, necessarily either 
useful or satisfactory. 

It is easier to suggest reforms than to carry them 
out ; and I remember, in this connection, quoting 
to the House, in one of my Estimate's speeches, the 
old saying that " anybody can turn up Genesis, but 
it takes an able-bodied man to find Hosea ! " 

The real fact is that, even though a postal reform 
may be a very good one, and be accepted in principle, 
time, money, and opportunity (especially where another 

1 A reform just introduced. 


country, such as the U.S.A., has to be consulted and 
persuaded) have all to be found and to synchronize, 
in order to carry it through. 
As Browning says : 

" Never the time, and the place, 
And the loved one all together." 

The difficulty in postal reforms is the same ; but 
nevertheless reforms are carried through. 

Yours sincerely, 



I am so glad to hear even in strict confidence 
that you are in favour of confining circulars to 
printed matter. 

All our troubles come from a departure from that 
principle ; and I hope you will at once bring your 
great influence to bear in that direction. 

Lord Londonderry and I have spent some time 
this morning in looking out a site here for the statue 
which the Post Office will at once erect in your honour. 

Very truly yours, 


If it is not possible to follow the traditional path 
from " China to Peru," it is at all events possible to 
include letters from the Legations of China and 
Mexico : 


I write to thank you for your letter and for 
the pamphlets which you have been so good as to 
send me. 

I am in entire agreement with you that it would 
be of great service to my country to have a universal 


Penny Post, and I have little doubt that in time this 
desirable end will be brought about. 

I shall have great pleasure in perusing the 
pamphlets, and should an occasion arise, shall lose 
no time in doing what I can to further the objects 
you name. 

Yours very truly, 



I have hailed with great satisfaction the 
announcement you make of a petition from influential 
persons in this country regarding the establishment 
of Penny Postage between Mexico and the United 
Kingdom endorsed by the British Government. Per- 
haps I may be able to carry it myself and lay it before 
the President of Mexico. I feel sure that will bring 
about the desired result, with the shortest possible 
delay. I scarcely need say that I will strive and do 
my best to help you in your very commendable work, 
which I consider a great honour. 

Looking forward to the pleasure of talking with 
you about this matter either at the House of Commons, 
on the 1 2th, or before. 
I remain, 

Yours very truly, 


H. H.'s daily letter bag was a large one, and the 
complaints that poured in upon him from unknown 
correspondents were a source of great help to him in 
attacking the Post Office. People who had failed 
to get satisfaction from the Post Office would appeal 
to him, and it was strange indeed if no benefit was 
derived from his assistance. At the time of the Boer 
War many relations of soldiers wrote to H. H. asking 


him to use his influence to get the parcel post reduced. 
To one of them he replied : 


I have been endeavouring to persuade the 
mandarins at St Martin's-le-Grand to meet your views 
(and that of thousands of others) in regard to soldier's 
parcels. They blame the Treasury. I have a question 
down to-morrow in the House of Commons, and I 
have reason to believe that I shall get a sympathetic 
if I cannot get a favourable answer. 

It would be a grand thing to convey all parcels 
for Tommy Atkins for id. each. 

Very sincerely yours, 


H. H. was always interested in seeing any new 
invention for stamping postmarks or safeguarding 
letters. Weird and wonderful were the devices that 
would occasionally arrive at Eaton Square, and 
almost block up the hall and staircase to the intense 
indignation of an elderly butler. 

Suggestions, some useful, some useless, arrived by 
nearly every post, and that hardy annual, a petition 
for Halfpenny Postage, arrived duly at the season 
of Postal Estimates and never failed to evoke H. H.'s 

A letter reached him posted in America with the 
simple address : 


" I guess and calculate your Postmaster knows him." 

The many charming anonymous letters of thanks 
that reached H. H. were a great pleasure to him, 


and Christmas time invariably brought forth a sheaf 
of good wishes from all parts of the world, signed 
variously : " A mother with sons abroad," " A working 
man and his friends," " An exile in Canada," etc. etc. 
If the writers should ever read this they will know 
how greatly H. H. appreciated these letters of thanks 
from his unknown correspondents. 

The following letter, which was printed in " The 
Times," brought forth the general opinion that it was 
more valuable as an argument for Penny Postage 
than all the statistics in the world : 


SYDNEY, June 12, 1905. 
To Mr Henniker Heaton, 

It may seem a liberty to write to you, but 
I feel I must, and congratulate you on the Penny 
Postage to Australia. We all have much to thank 
you for. My niece brought me five letters by the 
mail a fortnight ago, saying, " Why, aunty, here are 
five letters, all for you, and from home." " Well," 
I said, " there is something wrong," but no, it was all 
right, all carried penny stamps, and at last we have 
the penny postage. Such a treat five letters one 
in three months was about the average. 
You know a Scotchman loves his pennies. 
I remain, 

Yours respectfully, 


The life of a Postal reformer is not an easy one, 
but it was undoubtedly brightened from time to time 
by little episodes that were not without humour. 

A cable was sent by the late Rev. Henry Montague 


Villiers to his son in South America. Mr Villiers, 
having carefully inquired the price of each word, 
wrote rather a long message. The following day 
Mr Villiers received a letter from the G.P.O. demand- 
ing more than four times the amount, and stating 
that the clerk had made a mistake. A long corre- 
spondence ensued, but Mr Villiers consistently refused 
to pay. He very justly pointed out he would not 
have sent such a long message if he had known the 
real charge the fault was that of the Post Office clerk, 
and the Post Office must bear the penalty. "If," 
wrote Mr Villiers, " I entered a restaurant and ordered 
vin ordinaire and the waiter brought me in error 
Chiteau-Laffitte, and supposing I drank it, I should 
decline to pay for it." 

A more tragic complaint was received from a lady 
who had sent a packet of valuable lace from Ireland. 
It arrived in a deplorable state, having been ruined 
by the breaking of a bottle of Condy's Fluid over it. 
The Post Office refused to give any compensation, as 
they do not hold themselves responsible for anything 
damaged in transit. " What would be thought," 
wrote H. H., " of a business firm like Pickford, or 
Carter, Paterson, who declined to give compensation ? 
The public would not stand it for an instant." 

In 1891, H. H. compiled a long list showing the 
haphazard methods of the Telegraph Department in 
charging some words as one word, and others as two 
words or even three. Here are some examples : 


Upstairs. Down stairs. 

Can't, Won't, Don't. Shan't. 

South Stainley. South Hawley. 

Hampton Court. Hampton Wick. 



Westgate-on-Sea. Sheerness-on-Sea. 

So much ridicule was aroused by its publication 
that many of the anomalies were abolished. Un- 
doubtedly the privilege of saying " Shan't " for one 
halfpenny was the most generally popular among the 
less obliging portion of the community. 

For some years "H.M.S. " as part of the 

address was charged as one word, but " H.M.S. ' 

in the body of the telegram was counted as three 
words. Perhaps it was partly the righting of this 
anomaly that Admiral Sir Albert Markham had in 
his mind when he wrote, ' We in the Navy have 
special reasons for appreciating the great benefits 
that the untiring labours of Sir John have conferred." 

A further list of anomalies was published in 1901 : 


St Pancras. Charing Cross. 

P.M. M.P. 

Steamship. s.s. 

St Peter. Peter St. 

New Brighton. New Broughton. 

Twenty-five. Twenty five. 

Needlemaker. Cabinet maker. 

Mr Austen Chamberlain wrote to H. H. on this 
subject : 


Your quarrel should be with the dictionary 
maker (two words) rather than with the Postmaster 
(one word) . Thus ' ' stove maker " and " boiler maker , ' ' 
e.g., are not recognized as words by the dictionary, 


whilst cabinet-maker, needlemaker, wig-maker, etc., 
are so recognized and printed. 

It is a misfortune from the effects of which we daily 
suffer that the English language was a free and natural 
growth. Had it only been placed under the charge 
of the P.M.G. and swathed in red tape from infancy, 
we should have avoided all these gross anomalies 
which vex the soul of the careful student of the P.O. 

I hasten to add that there is no dictionary founda- 
tion for the difference between 10 and io/- (though, 
alas, a very important one in practice !), and I will 
try to meet your views on this point as well as upon 
the time of day. 

Yours truly, 


Many complaints were received by H. H. from 
people who had suffered by reason of mistakes made 
by careless telegraph clerks. He was fond of telling 
the story of an announcement that appeared in the 
newspapers (by cable) to the effect that the wife of a 
certain Governor of Australia had given birth to 
twins, the eldest of which was a son. This announce- 
ment evoked unqualified astonishment among their 
Excellencies' friends. Explanations were demanded, 
and as a result it was found that the cable, " Governor 
twins first son," was a misreading of " Governor turns 
first sod," the message being concerned with the 
ceremonial opening of some public park. 

King Edward VII. of blessed memory took a deep 
and encouraging interest in all H. H.'s schemes for 
reducing the cost of communication. On one occasion 
His Majesty landed at Dover and found H. H., who 
was returning from Carlsbad, on the quay. The 


King shook hands with him and then, remembering 
with characteristic readiness the special interests of 
the Postal reformer, he waved his hand towards the 
channel, and said smilingly : "To think a letter costs 
twopence halfpenny to cross that." 



ON his writing-table H. H. kept three envelopes. 
The first bore a sixpenny Australian stamp 
for a letter weighing less than a third of an 
ounce, addressed to him in England from 
Sydney, New South Wales, in April, 1885 > the second 
bore a penny stamp, addressed by H. H. in London 
to Lord Northcote, Governor-General of Australia, 
on the ist April, 1905 ; and the third bore a penny 
stamp, dated ist May, 1911, posted in Melbourne, 
Victoria, and addressed to him in London, from the 
Hon. Josiah Thomas, Postmaster-General of the 
Australian Commonwealth. 

The story of Penny Postage between England 
and Australia is of dramatic interest. It opens with 
the speech of that noble woman, Mrs Chisholm (" the 
Emigrants' Friend," whose name, if unfamiliar to 
English readers, is a saintly memory in Australian 
hearts), at a public meeting, in which she stated that 
the high postage prevented correspondence between 
emigrants and the old folks at home, and the suffering 
in consequence. Mrs Chisholm narrated the story 
of one poor old woman dying in England through 
having to refuse a letter on which she was unable to 
pay the postage. The letter contained 25. 

On Australian stations far away in the bush there 
was nothing more touching than to see the emigrant 



son reading a letter from home. Many a time in his 
young life in the Colonies, H. H. was among a group 
gathered round the camp fire listening to the letters 
from Home read aloud. During his wanderings in 
Australia, he one day entered a Court House and 
was given a seat on the Bench. A young Irishman 
was charged with cheating and defrauding Her 
Britannic Majesty's Postmaster-General. Newspaper 
postage to England was one penny, but letters six- 
pence each. He wrote inside the newspaper : " My 
dear Mother, The long drought has ended in Australia, 

and I have got a situation at last on Mr B 's 

station at a pound a week. Please God I will send 
you two pounds at the end of the month. Your 
affectionate son The newspaper was addressed 
to his mother in Limerick, Ireland. The postmaster 
discovered the message, and the man was arrested 

on Mr B 's station for defrauding the revenue. 

He was sentenced to three weeks' imprisonment, and 
of course the loss of his billet followed. 

These and other scenes, impressing themselves 
upon H. H., built up his determination to secure 
cheap postage at all costs. 

A Speech in favour of penny postage was made 
by Lord Rosebery at Paisley, in 1885, in the course 
of which he said : 

" Anybody who has to open the letter-bag of an 
estate, as I have to do very often, will notice the 
enormous number of letters with the Colonial stamp 
and postmark coming to the families living on the 
estate ; and it is perfectly futile for people to believe, 
whether Liberals or Conservatives, that with these 
letters passing and repassing between members of 
the same family in England and the Colonies, the 


' i 

AD- C or* o n a r i|n . 1911 , 

By Sanction ofH'M*Po3lntyster Ce/tcrd/ 



members of the family who live in England could 
afford to be indifferent to the Colonies." 

From his first entry into Parliament H. H. con- 
cerned himself with speaking, writing, and working 
in favour of cheaper communication. In 1887, the 
First Colonial Conference was held in London, when 
H. H. proposed Imperial Penny Postage. It is hardly 
conceivable at this date that so little interest was 
taken in her Colonies by England thirty years ago : 
nor is it believable that an Agent-General should speak 
in the words used by Sir Saul Samuel on that occasion : 

" There has never been any demand by the Colonies 
for any reduction of postage from 6d. to id. If the 
Colonies do not complain, and if the Colonies do not 
want this reduction, is it to be given simply because 
some people in England agitate for it without any 
good reason ? 

" Further, we have to bear in mind that half the 
population of New South Wales consists of people 
born in the Colony, who have scarcely any reason 
for communicating at all with the mother country, 
and I believe that this will be found to apply to several 
of the other Colonies. A large number of people 
who go out from England very soon lose touch with 
the mother country, so far as correspondence goes, 
and it is not likely there would be any large increase 
in the number of letters." 

It is hardly necessary to add that no action was 
taken as the outcome of the conference. More than 
ten years later, at a conference in 1898, imperial penny 
postage was carried by seven votes to five, the five 
opponents being Victoria, Western Australia, South 
Australia, Queensland, and New Zealand. 

This was a disappointment severely felt by H. H., 


but he was not discouraged. New Zealand, in 1900, 
under the guidance of Sir Joseph Ward, was the first 
to give a lead by announcing not only Imperial but 
Universal Penny Postage. This news was communi- 
cated to H. H. in a letter dated i6th August, 1900 : 

I have much pleasure in informing you that New 
Zealand will introduce Universal Penny Postage from 
the ist January, 1901, as a befitting commemoration 
of the New Century and adding another link to the 
chain of Empire. 

J. G. WARD, Postmaster-General. 

Five years elapsed before H. H. received the 
following letter from Lord Stanley, Postmaster-General 
of England : 


I cannot allow the bald statement which will 
appear in Monday's papers to the effect that, so far 
as this country is concerned, a Penny Postage rate 
will come into force with Australia on ist April to 
be the first announcement to you of the fulfilment of 
one of your postal dreams. You have worked for this 
reform with untiring energy, and I am glad to think 
that I am the first, though I shall certainly not be 
the last, to congratulate you. Credit to whom credit 
is due, and I should be the last to deny to you the 
credit of having to a great extent contributed to the 
success of negotiations which have terminated in a 
manner agreeable alike to you and to me. I trust 
now you will devote your attention to trying to 
induce the Commonwealth to lower, at the earliest 
possible moment, their tariff to a penny so that the 
Imperial Penny Postage between ourselves and the 
Colonies may be complete. 

Yours sincerely, 


1 Earl of Derby. 



H. H. replied as follows : 


Only those who have grown grey in the pursuit 
of some high and cherished aim can understand the 
feelings with which I read your inclusion of Australia 
in the scope of Imperial Penny Postage. At last my 
reproach is removed, and an invidious exception, 
which went to my heart, is put an end to. No longer 
shall I be pained by reading such notices as " Penny 
Postage to all parts of the Empire, excepting Aus- 
tralia," or " Postage to all foreign countries and 
Australia, 2|d." 

But my feelings are of small concern. It only 
remains for me, as a humble representative of public 
opinion in this matter, to tender you, as Postmaster- 
General, Mr Austen Chamberlain, as Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, and Mr Alfred Lyttelton, Colonial 
Secretary, and I ought to add the editor of the " Times," 
the sincere felicitations and gratitude of our countrymen 
on the happy completion of the Imperial Penny Postage 
scheme. It had already, like the sections of an un- 
finished railroad, produced considerable benefits. But 
so long as the island-continent stood aloof there was 
a kind of stigma attaching to it, which is now removed 
for ever. You have forged the last link in the in- 
tangible chain that binds the widely scattered frag- 
ments of the King's dominions into one solid mass. 
You have thrown the mantle of imperial unity over 
the shoulders of the Sovereign. You have struck 
the " Lost Chord " in the imperial symphony, and 
one grand, perfect chorus ascends over land and sea. 

Let me mention that I have the strongest and 
most authoritative assurance that Australia will recip- 
rocate your action at the earliest possible moment. 
I have never expressed impatience on the subject of 
her attitude, since I know that the adoption of the 
penny rate to England would involve the reduction 


of her inland rate to a penny, and a consequent annual 
loss of 250,000. 

I ought not to conclude this letter of gratitude 
for a particular reform, great as it is, without ex- 
pressing my sense of the value of numerous im- 
provements effected in the postal and telegraphic 
system under the administration of yourself and 
your two predecessors, Mr Austen Chamberlain and 
Lord Londonderry. 

I am, yours very faithfully, 


In 1906, Mr Austin Chapman, Postmaster-General 
of Australia, introduced a Bill to establish Penny 
Postage throughout the Commonwealth and overseas. 
It met with considerable opposition and was eventually 

In 1907, H. H. visited Australia, and had many 
interviews with leading citizens and members of 
Parliament, with regard to the rate of postage. He 
pointed out the absurd position Australia was in, 
and that Australia and China were the only countries 
not enjoying inland penny postage. An indignant 
Chinaman at once replied that China was enjoying 
penny postage, and that letters with less than a penny 
stamp franked letters from the uttermost parts of 
China and Japan. 

Victory was completed in 1911, when the Hon. 
Josiah Thomas, P.M.G. of Australia, addressed the 
first letter under the penny postal rate to H. H. ; and 
the long and weary struggle was thus ended. 

Twenty-six years of strenuous labour, twenty- 
six years of unyielding perseverance in the face of 
indifference and opposition, resulted in the achievement 
of H. H.'s deep-felt desire that he might live to see 


the country he loved enjoying the benefits of Penny 

To Australia, the land of his adoption, H. H. owed 
much, and I think he felt that in some measure he was 
repaying his debt. 




OR many years H. H. was engaged in en- 
deavouring to secure the reduction of cable 
rates. In a letter addressed to the Post- 
master-General, he wrote : 

" At present the bulk of our trading negotiations 
are conducted in writing, just as they were between 
Assyria and Egypt thousands of years ago. There is 
a lamentable waste of time at every stage of the 
proceedings. We do business at a rate which might 
have been tolerable in patriarchal days, but which 
obviously leaves out of sight our slender span of life 
seventy years. My property is in Australia. It 
takes me three months to write to that country and 
get a reply to my letter. This is too much out of my 
span of seventy years. Yet the human race for two 
generations has been in possession of means of in- 
stantaneous communication of thought, so perfect, so 
unerring, so docile, and so plentifully found in Nature 
that it would tax angelic intelligence to improve upon 
it. This means is, for all but the most urgent concerns, 
as utterly ignored and neglected as if we were living 
in the days of the Pharaohs. Even when it is em- 
ployed, each country sets a new tax on the passing 
telegram, as it would upon luxuries or dangerous 
commodities. The flash of the message instantly 
passes over the face of Europe from one end to the 
other ; yet it has to pay toll more than once on its 
way to the various foreign Governments. It seems 
to me it would be as reasonable to tax a sunbeam." 



In 1907, an article by H. H. in the " Arena," entitled 
" How to Smash the Cable Ring," first aroused public 
interest. The next year this was followed up by 
further revelations in " The Financial Review of 
Reviews," which created a remarkable sensation. Thus 
encouraged, H. H. issued a pamphlet advocating the 
establishment of universal penny-a-word telegrams, 
which he submitted by way of referendum to the 
judgment of representative members of the thinking 

The overwhelming consensus of opinion in favour 
of penny-a-word telegrams led to a great meeting 
being held by the Royal Colonial Institute to con- 
sider the practicability of penny-a-word telegrams 
throughout the Empire. 

The late Lord Jersey presided, and powerful speeches 
were made by Mr Marconi, the Post master -General 
of Canada, the Hon. R. Lemieux, Lord Strathcona, 
Sir Charles Bruce, and others. 

In the course of his speech H. H. said : 

" Twenty-one years have passed away since I 
stood on this platform before a distinguished represen- 
tative and imperial assembly to advocate imperial 
penny postage and cheap cablegrams. On that night, 
in the year of the first Jubilee, I first advanced the 
theory that a cheap telegraphic system for the Empire 
was a commercial possibility, and that it would do 
much to knit together our scattered Empire and link 
up its many peoples. 

" I need not bring back to your minds the fierce 
resistance this project encountered. It was ' unheard 
of/ ' monstrous,' and ' the wild phantasy of a dreamer.' 
I was denounced for this notion of cheap cabling 
in the language of the Old Bailey. The proposals I 
placed before you were viewed with abhorrence by 


the cable companies. They could not see the practica- 
bility of my ideas. But in the course of the rolling 
years these so-called visionary projects have already 
come appreciably near to realization. That which 
I advocated in the closing years of the last century 
was a mild reform compared with what presents itself 
within a wider horizon in this twentieth century. To- 
day what we want is a universal penny-a-word rate, 
and he would be a bold man indeed who would deny 
the certain realization of our hopes. 

" Let me go back for a moment to that stormy night 
in 1887, which is full of suggestiveness to all those 
who have stood with me in the forefront of this battle 
waged against reluctant officialism, which, vowing 
that it will never surrender, always ends by giving 
way. On that occasion I advocated the construction 
of a cable from the Cape of Good Hope to Australia. 
The Eastern Telegraph Company, in the person of 
one whom even his opponents would call our dear 
old friend, Sir James Anderson, deemed the notion 
impossible. Sir James Anderson said : ' There is 
some talk of taking a cable all the way from Australia 
to Mauritius across the route of the trade winds to the 
Cape. There is not even a sandbank on which to 
catch fish. There is not a port to which a cruiser or 
a cable-ship can go to replenish their supply of coal, 
which they are certain to require to do. There are 
no ships going there. There is no trade, and nobody 
wants to go there.' 

" This was very plain and to the point. And now 
what has occurred ? On January i, 1901 only 
fourteen years afterwards the Eastern Telegraph 
Company finished the construction, at their own 
expense, of this very cable which they had denounced 
me for advocating. Sandbank or no sandbank, fish 
or no fish, observant men knew it was to come. I 
must quote Sir James Anderson's speech that night 
once more : ' Take the cable from Canada down to 


Fiji and New Caledonia to Australia. I do not believe 
in it a bit, and I hope that no one with whom I have 
influence will ever put a penny of money into it, 
but leave it to those gentlemen who do not know any 

" That cable is also laid the cable from Canade via 
Fiji to Australia. To Sir Sandford Fleming, that 
veteran Canadian whose patriotic work will for ever 
be remembered, the credit of this work is due. 

" The chief obstacle which is before us in the fight 
for carrying out our policy is in the political frontiers. 
Our object, therefore, should be to abolish political 
frontiers, so far as telegrams are concerned, in our 
communications with every part of the earth. In 
this matter ' political ' frontiers, by arrangements 
with foreign Governments, ought not to be taken into 
consideration at all. Between man and man these 
political frontiers should not exist. As a matter of 
fact to the travelled individual who has friends all 
over the world they do not exist, except on paper. 

" At this point it may be observed that if we cannot 
get over this difficulty I place my hopes on my friend 
Marconi. He entirely ignored political frontiers when 
I received from him at Port Said, on board the 
" Renown," a wireless message which must have passed 
over all the political frontiers of France and Spain and 
the Alps before it reached Port Said in Egypt." 

No time was lost in calling a meeting at the Mansion 
House, presided over by the Lord Mayor, Sir J. C. Bell, 
and attended by a number of highly important and 
influential City merchants. Among others present 
were men of such world-wide interests as the Duke of 
Argyll, Lord Milner, Lord Blyth, Lord Strathcona, 
Sir Owen Phillips, Sir William Holland, Sir Edward 
Sassoon, Sir Albert Spicer, and many others. 

The speeches delivered by Captain Muirhead Collins 


and by the Hon. R. Lemieux were of such a character 
as to render it certain that the Colonies were fully 
determined to secure the benefits which cheap teleg- 
raphy would confer. 

A resolution was proposed by the Duke of Argyll 
and seconded by Lord Milner : 

' That this meeting, convinced of the desirability 
and necessity to manifold imperial interests of a 
system of low priced, easy, uniform means of telegraph 
connexion within the Empire, pledges itself to support 
the efforts of the Cable Committee of Members of 
Parliament with that supreme object in view." 

If H. H. hoped that an immediate reduction of all 
cable rates would follow, such hopes were doomed 
to disappointment. Very carefully, very slowly, 
minor concessions were granted, such as a halfpenny- 
a-word reduction in rates for telegrams to thirteen 
countries in the European system. 

An impetus was given to the movement for cheap 
cabling by a highly instructive paper read before the 
Royal Colonial Institute, by Mr Charles Bright, 
F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E. "It has always 
seemed to me," he said, " that a great advance would 
be made in our inter-imperial communications if an 
all-round imperial cable tariff say, of is., gd., or even 
6d. could be put into operation." 

A pronouncement from such an authority carried 
considerable weight among even the most sceptical. 
Mr Bright's name will always be associated with every 
victorious step in the direction of cheapening imperial 
communications . 

The year 1909 was memorable for the first Imperial 
Press Conference held in London. The Conference 


was primarily the conception of Mr Harry Brittain 
while travelling in Canada. After enlisting the sym- 
pathy of the Governor-General, he returned to England 
and secured the co-operation of all the great newspaper 
proprietors and editors, including Lord Burnham 
(President), the Honble. Harry Lawson, Lord North- 
cliffe, Mr Arthur Pearson, and Mr J. A. Spender. 
Discussions were held on the Defence, Commerce and 
Unity of the Empire, and speeches were made by 
leading statesmen of every country represented. 

On the subject of imperial communication H. H. 
was invited by the Secretary of State, Mr Harcourt, 
to lay his views before the Conference and to furnish 
the members with the necessary number of his 
pamphlets on cable communication. 

One immediate result of the Imperial Press Con- 
ference was to reduce the Press Cable Rates to almost 
every part of the Empire by twenty-five per cent. 

The further result of this reduction was that more 
news was obtained at the same price and what was 
more important it succeeded in creating a demand 
for more news still. 

No longer need Canada complain : 

' We are kept fairly well posted up upon the 
happenings in Great Britain though nine-tenths of 
this news comes to us by United States channels, 
but what do we really know about what is going on 
elsewhere in the Empire ? 

" During the South African War we were posted 
about every clash between outposts : but with the 
return of peace South Africa ceased to be regarded 
as a source of news and in the last seven years we have 
not received, all told, as much cable news from that 
part of the Empire as we did in a single week during 
the war." 


With the advent of Mr Herbert Samuel to the 
Post Office the " Deferred Message " System was 
introduced, by which plain language telegrams to 
British oversea Dominions and the United States 
were reduced by one-half, subject to deferment of not 
more than twenty-four hours. Other facilities were 
granted for sending long messages known as " Week- 
end letters " at a fifth and a quarter the usual rate. 
From time to time, other reductions have followed 
and, although the dream of penny-a-word telegram 
is still unrealized, the day may not be far distant 
when we shall speak as easily to Australia and New 
Zealand as we do to Ireland. 

H. H.'s faith in Wireless Telegraphy never wavered 
from the time of his first coming into contact with 
Marconi and his invention. His heart was set upon 
bringing the various units of this great Empire into 
closer contact with each other, and he regarded Wire- 
less Telegraphy as the means which would, combined 
with cheapened and accelerated postal communications, 
do more to effect that end than any other possible 
human agency. 

H. H. was a firm believer in the future of ether- 
wave transmission from the point of view of the 
interests of this country and the world at large. He 
looked with admiration and approval at the work 
which Marconi had already effected, and placed un- 
quenchable faith in that which he was destined yet to 
achieve. Whenever a new invention or development 
of a former one had reached a stage suitable for in- 
vestigation, H. H. was always one of the first to 
be consulted and his sympathetic attention never 

His interest was enlisted in an invention of Marconi's 


for use in warfare, and in 1902 Field-Marshal Sir John 
French wrote as follows : 


Many thanks for yours of the 2Oth. 
I am obliged to get special permission from the 
W.O. to try any new inventions here. This I hope 
to obtain shortly and we will then proceed. 

I shall be very glad if you will kindly come to stay 
with me when the trials are going on. 
Yours very sincerely, 


The close of the great European warfare now in full 
tide is likely to witness the fulfilment of H. H/s 
prophecy : ' The world watches Marconi as one of 
the gifted leaders born for our time. His system is 
a powerful factor in our crusade of cheap imperial 
communications . ' ' 

It is interesting to recall that H. H.'s last public 
utterance in the City of London was a plea for the 
establishment of penny-a-word telegrams. 

The Right Honourable Sir Vezey Strong, K.C.V.O., 
wrote as follows : 


I enclose you a brief notice of the Banquet 
given by the Worshipful Company of Plumbers on 
the 2Oth December, 1912, at which your father, Sir 
John Henniker Heaton, was an honoured guest, and 
at which, as Master of the Company, it was my privilege 
to preside. 

I think you will find that the last public pronounce- 
ment by your father, of his hopes and aspirations for 
the further extension of the beneficent work to which 
he devoted so much of his life, was made on this 


occasion, and it seems to me that a Biography of Sir 
Henniker Heaton could not end on a more appropriate 
or inspiring note than the quotation of his own words, 
uttered at the close of his public career. 

The Banquet of the Plumbers' Company was, I 
believe, the last occasion on which he spoke in the 
City of London. I use the word " the City " in its 
strict sense, for, as you will probably know, the City 
is that portion of London governed by the Lord Mayor 
and Corporation, having as its centre the Guildhall 
and the Mansion House, and as its Western Boundary 
the place where Temple Bar formerly stood, now 
marked by the Griffin opposite to the Law Courts in 
the Strand. The guests included the Lord Mayor, 
Sheriffs, representatives of State Departments, the 
Colonies and oversea Dominions, Mayors and principal 
officers of Metropolitan and Provincial Boroughs, 
the Presidents and Members of Scientific and learned 
Societies, Guilds, and other bodies. 

It was an occasion so important and so significant 
that its full significance was perhaps hardly realized 
at the time. It is only in looking back upon such 
moments that they come into their proper perspective. 

" I shall not regard my work as completed," said 
your father, " until time and space have been anni- 
hilated, and the scattered coasts of the Empire have 
been so united that we can speak to the people of 
New Zealand as easily as I am speaking to this 

It was his farewell message to the Empire which 
he so greatly loved, spoken from the very centre of 
that Empire ; and he was at that moment surrounded 
by men who can powerfully help to the fulfilment of 
his dream. The High Commissioner for New Zealand 
was sitting by his side. 

It was your father's inspiration to " Carry On ! " 

Those who were present on that occasion will read 
again in your book the words which they heard from 


your father's lips. And thousands more in all parts 
of the world will read them and be moved by them to 
fresh exertions for the achievement of his dream, and 
of more than even he ever dreamed. 
I am, dear Madam, 

Yours very sincerely, 




SIXTY-TWO reforms one for each year of his 
life were drawn up by H. H. on his retire- 
ment from Parliament, 1910, and presented 
to the Postmaster-General 1 with the follow- 
ing letter : 


You will have observed the tendency of men 
who have taken part in political affairs to set forth 
I will not say bequeath on their retirement a scheme 
of general improvement for the benefit of their fellows. 

Although wanting the profound sagacity and 
dazzling imagination of the great Utopians of past 
years, I would yet crave permission to enumerate 
certain reforms in the great postal department over 
which you preside, which might render it still more 
efficient. None knows better than a close student 
of all the post offices of the countries of the world, how 
splendid is our record of achievement in the British 
Post Office. Much courage is required to point out 
any remaining defects or failings. But we all know 
our truest friend is he who tells us of our faults. From 
this point of view I am the best friend the Post Office 
ever had. 

This is not the first time I have ventured on a 
summing-up of postal grievances. Each of your 
predecessors during the past quarter of a century has 
received such a list at my hands. Many of these 
demands nearly one hundred have been conceded, 

1 The Right Honble. Herbert Samuel. 


Ry permission of tlie proprietors of " The Graphic" 


including such substantial boons as imperial penny 
postage, and penny postage to the whole of the 
English-speaking countries of the world. 

There remain the 62 given herewith one, by an 
accidental correspondence, for every year of my life. 
Many of these you may meet at a little greater ex- 
penditure than that of the ink used for your signature. 
All represent real and urgent public needs. Some of 
them I drew up as a young and hopeful reformer. They 
still utter the wishes of the public an appealing note 
of truth, like the old gramophone records into which 
Browning breathed poetry and Patti music. They 
stand as a Pygmalion's gallery of statues waiting for 
life to be breathed into them. Need I say by whom ? 

Of one thing all who know you will be assured 
that not one reform will be refused or delayed without 
your personal and unbiased investigation of the 
question involved, or because the interest of humble 
toilers only are at stake. 

In conclusion, permit me to express a hope that 
you may adopt the suggestions and reforms given 
below ; in other words, so signalize your term of office 
by improving the communications of the people by 
post, telegraph, and telephone, that at its termination 
you will need no other memorial than the record of 
these achievements. 

I am, your obedient servant, 



1. Universal penny postage. 

2. An Imperial Postmaster-General. 

3. International Conference between Postmasters- 
General in reference to telegraphic and telephonic 


4. Telegraph tariff to any part of Europe to be 
one penny per word. 

5. Halfpenny post cards to all parts of the world. 

6. Rearrangement of time-tables for mails to and 
from Australia and India, whereby sufficient time be 
allowed for replies to be written. 

7. Telephone charges to the Continent to be 
substantially reduced. 

8. Parcel post to foreign countries and the Empire 

9. Telegraphy money order extended to all parts 
of the civilized world. 

10. The cables owned by British companies to 
be acquired (and all gaps bridged) by the British, 
Indian, and Colonial Governments, and worked at 
the lowest remunerative rates. 

11. Telegrams to all parts of the British Empire 
to cost one penny per word, with a minimum total 
charge of one shilling. 

12. A cheap agricultural parcel post with special 
provision, by motor-car or otherwise, for rapid collec- 
tion throughout Great Britain and Ireland. 

13. Introduction of the cash on delivery system. 

14. Minimum charges for samples to be reduced 
to one halfpenny. 

15. Post cards to be sold at their face value. 

16. Quality of post cards to be improved. 

17. Permission given to stick a newspaper para- 
graph on a card. 

18. All charges for printing halfpenny stamp on 
private post cards to be abolished. 

19. All anomalies and contradictory regulations 
to be put right. 

20. An imperial exchange x>r clearing-house for 
postal orders to be arranged. 

21. No confiscation of reply-telegrams if unused 
for any length of time. 

22. Stamps to be sold on Sundays at all telegraph 


offices, railway stations, and the chief provincial post 
offices that are open for general business. 

23. Mandat-carte system to be introduced for sums 
up to i. 

24. The charge for registration of letters and all 
postal articles to be reduced to one penny. 

25. The fine for insufficient postage not to exceed 
one halfpenny for inland and one penny for foreign 

26. Three classes of postmen for expediting 
delivery, (i) letters and post cards, (2) newspapers, 
(3) parcels. 

27. Tube conveyance of mails in cities. 

28. Letter boxes to be provided on all through trains. 

29. England is the only country not named on its 
own postage stamps. This to be remedied. 

30. An international postage stamp to be brought 
into use or an exchange of stamps at the various post 
offices of the world might be arranged as bankers 
exchange their cheques. 

31. The sender of a letter to have the right to recall 
it after posting. 

32. Postmarks to be made clear and legible. 

33. Letters containing lottery tickets and adver- 
tisements to be destroyed. 

34. Full compensation to be given for neglect, 
default, or larceny by officials. 

35. Improved pillar-boxes for the safe-guarding 
of letters. 

36. Charges for redirection of telegrams to be 

37. The name of each place, etc., in the United 
Kingdom to be charged in telegrams as one word. 

38. Name and address on telegrams free, or twenty 
words for sixpence. 

39. Compensation to be awarded for errors in 
telegrams through carelessness on part of the post 
office employe. 


40. Telephone calls to all parts of the Kingdom 
to be reduced. 

41. Magazine post at the rate of eight ounces for 
one penny. 

42. All bona fide periodicals issued for sale to be 
registered and transmitted at newspaper rates. 

43. Sailors and soldiers serving abroad to have 
their letters sent postage free. 


The following notice on the Parliamentary paper 
explains itself : Mr Henniker Heaton : Halfpenny 

To call attention to the halfpenny post regulations 
of the British Post Office, and to the fact that tens of 
thousands of British subjects are fined annually for 
breaches of these regulations through being unable 
to define what is halfpenny matter and what is in 
the nature of a letter ; and to move : that, inasmuch 
as the Postal Guide contains more than two pages of 
definitions, and that there are only two persons in 
the Post Office who know what can and what cannot 
be sent by .the halfpenny post, and that these two 
disagree, steps be taken forthwith to revise and 
simplify the definitions and regulations. 


All coupons for reply stamps cost 3d. that is, 2jd. 
for the stamp and Jd. commission. Now that postage 
is reduced to India, to all the Colonies of the British 
Empire, and to the United States of America and 
Egypt, to id., coupons for reply stamps should not 
cost more than ijd. each to these countries. 

46. The Post Office Savings Bank to accept pence. 

47. The system of mail subsidies to be placed on a 
business footing. 


48. All business expenditure for sites and buildings 
to be carried to a capital account, and spread over 
several years, instead of being paid out of current 

49. The surplus of the Post Office over and above 
three millions sterling to be devoted to cheapening, 
extending, and facilitating the postal and telegraphic 
services of Great Britain and Ireland. 

50. A Government printing office to be established. 

51. The insurance department of the Post Office to 
be placed under the control of an experienced manager. 

52. The architecture of post offices to be improved. 

53. Lodgers' letters to be re-addressed by the Post 

54. A letter service de luxe to be established. I 
would invite designs for a handsome express stamp, 
value 3d. This express stamp would insure delivery, 
(i) of any special letter of great importance, (2) of a 
letter on Sundays throughout London, and (3) it would 
also insure a letter catching the Continental or late- 
country post. It would be delivered by a special 
bicycle messenger. 


Considering the importance of publishing Empire 
news throughout Great Britain and Ireland, I hope you 
will consent to the registration in this country, at the 
present rate for British newspapers, of all newspapers 
published in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, 
the West Indies, and all the other colonies and de- 
pendencies of the British Empire, so as to enable them 
to be reposted at a moderate postage rate to friends 
in this country. 

56. " Baggage smashing " to be stopped or paid 

57. LONDON should be made one district in regard 
to the redirection of parcels. 


May I venture to recommend that you should 
reconstitute London one postal district for the re- 
direction of parcels ? A parcel redirected from the 
House of Commons to Eaton Square is sent free ; but 
a similar parcel sent from the House to the Grand 
Hotel, Charing Cross (one quarter the distance) is 
subjected to a fine of lojd. for redirection. 


Your telegraphic deficit of one million sterling 
per annum is not very creditable to your department. 
It is not paralleled in any other civilized country in 
the world. Some time ago, I found that every inland 
telegram cost you a shilling, while the average value 
or receipt was 7|d. for each telegram. 

59. A new post and telegraph office to be erected 
at Charing Cross. 

60. A clear and Intelligible " Post Office Guide " 
in legible print to be prepared. 

It is suggested that the " Guide " should be revised 
in the interests of the public, and that the regulations 
should be at least grammatical, always clear, and 
occasionally generous. 


As we are dealing with ideals, let me breathe a 
sigh for the speedy advent of a penny in the slot letter- 
stamping machine, which will one day be incorporated 
with every pillar-box. 

This will do away with the nauseous formality of 
licking adhesive stamps, and many journeys to pur- 
chase them, and it will be a step towards the riper 
ideal of the penny telegram. 



In all the great newspaper offices of London, 
Liverpool, Manchester, Dublin, Belfast, Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, etc., and at the principal newspaper agencies, 
you should arrange with the principals to save expense 
and delay by posting the newspapers without affixing 
stamps, and in some cases even postmarking. 



' "Jf IFE has been very good to me," H. H. 
was sometimes heard to say, and he spoke 
humbly as one undeserving of much 

* ^ reward. In a world where so many lives 
are embittered by disappointment, so much merit 
unrecognized, it was always with a sense of heartfelt 
gratitude that H. H. received the just reward of his 

I think the honour he prized beyond all things 
was the bestowal upon him of the Freedom of the 
City of London, in 1899. It is an honour few may 
claim. Titles may be bought, patronage may secure 
privileges, but merit alone can win a place upon 
" London's Roll of Honour." The casket containing 
the scroll of Freedom was of solid gold, ornamented 
with enamelled panels representing the old fashioned 
mail coach and mail train and views of an old-type 
sailing ship and modern steamer. The quaint testi- 
mony of the " compurgators " was read before the 
Lord Mayor, declaring that "Mr J. Henniker 
Heaton, M.P., is a man of good name and fame, that 
he does not desire the Freedom of the City whereby 
to defraud the Queen, or this City of any of its rights 
and customs or advantages, but will pay scot and 
bear his lot, and so they all say." 

The Chamberlain, Sir Richmond Cotton, in moving 
the address said : 



" Mr Henniker Heaton You have heard from 
the Town Clerk the Resolution in which the Corpora- 
tion of the City of London unanimously decided to 
enrol your name in the list of its Honorary Freemen. 

" It becomes my pleasant duty, as Chamberlain 
of London, in the name of the Court, to offer you 
congratulations on those public services which have 
led the City to record you on what has been not inaptly 
called ' London's Roll of Fame/ which includes 
Kings, Princes, Statesmen, Patriots, Warriors, Ex- 
plorers, Discoverers and Philanthropists. It is as a 
Philanthropist that we are privileged to greet and 
welcome you to-day. 

" It will be interesting to you to be reminded that 
twenty years ago an exactly similar honour was 
bestowed by the Corporation on that great postal 
reformer Sir Rowland Hill, in acknowledgment of the 
social and commercial benefits the country had derived 
from the adoption in 1840 of his system of Uniform 
Penny Postage in the United Kingdom. 

" And now, Mr Henniker Heaton, I have the honour 
and pleasure, in the name of the Lord Mayor, Alder- 
men, Sheriffs, and Common Councilmen of the City 
of London, whose action to-day will, I feel sure, be 
warmly endorsed by all classes of the community, 
not only here, but in India and the Colonies, to offer 
you the right hand of fellowship, as a Citizen of this 
great City, and to ask your acceptance of this gold 
casket containing the scroll of your Freedom, which 
may remind you, and those who may follow you, of 
the respect and esteem entertained for you by this 
ancient Corporation for your distinguished public 
services as a Philanthropist and a Reformer/' 

The Freedom of the City of Canterbury was con- 
ferred upon H. H., and thus he became a Freeman of 
the Capital of the Empire, and also a Freeman of the 
ecclesiastical capital of the Empire. 


The presentation of a testimonial from the Heads 
of Australian Banks in London had a double signifi- 
cance. It not only expressed their appreciation of 
his Empire work but it set the seal of approval upon 
its financial aspect. Bankers are proverbially long- 
headed, and when they are pleased to approve a 
scheme it is high time for all talk of " visionaries and 
dreamers " to cease. 

H. H. was a Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute, 
a Fellow of King's College, London, and a Fellow of 
the Royal Society of Literature. Some years before 
his death his name was put forward as a candidate 
for the Nobel Peace Prize, and had he lived his friends 
hoped to see this bestowed upon him, supported as 
it was by the greatest names in England. 

Throughout his political life, his efforts were en- 
couraged by words of appreciation from the highest 
to the poorest in the land. He was honoured on 
more than one occasion by a letter of thanks 
from Queen Victoria, King Edward, and Queen 
Alexandra. At the other end of the scale he appreci- 
ated the pious wish of an unknown admirer who 
wrote, " A Birmingham navvy desires to congratulate 
you on your success Penny Postage. I should like 
to have the job to excavate for foundation of your 

During H. H.'s visit to Australia in 1912 his 
services were recognized by the bestowal of a baronetcy 
by the King. A public welcome awaited him on his 
return to London, under the auspices of the British 
Empire League. Lord Blyth, with Lord Curzon, 
arranged the form of the welcome, and the presentation 
of an illuminated album, containing over a thousand 
signatures, and the appreciations of distinguished and 


representative men not only of all parts of the Empire, 
but also of many foreign countries. 

The Presentation took place on Tuesday, June n, 
1912, and the following account appeared the next 
day : 

The City of London has a manner and a splendour 
all its own, and both of these last night were at the 
service of Sir Henniker Heaton. The City does not 
receive its chosen heroes as its neighbour Paris 
welcomed General Boulanger. 

The atmosphere of the Masque has never been 
the atmosphere of London's Civic welcomes. We do 
not throw confetti and shake out fairy-lamps and 
spangles on to the dark mantle of our midnight greet- 
ings. We prefer to take our chosen heroes quietly, 
as befits a quiet and sober folk, into that great old- 
world " parlour " of our City, the Guildhall, and, 
sitting together in the homely fashion of people who 
have earned a rightful repose through work and 
labour, talk to our guest of honour of his triumphs 
and his achievements, wish him the brightest of 
futures, toast him among ourselves, and depart on 
our several ways with a fervent hope that the serenest 
stars will illuminate the evening of his days. 

It was so with Sir Henniker Heaton last night. 
He was welcomed at the Guildhall by the Lord Mayor, 
Lord Curzon, Lord Blyth, and at least a thousand 
members of the executive and general committees 
formed at the invitation of the Duke of Devonshire 
to do honour to a great benefactor of humanity on 
the occasion of his return to England. 

The historic wealth of our old city hall, the grey- 
ness of its walls, its breathing sense of slowly estab- 
lished traditions and history lent an atmosphere of 
stateliness and dignity to the proceedings which 
brought out the cause rather than the brilliance of 
the assemblage. 



Most of us know to-day something about the 
remarkable symposium of expressions of appreciation 
of Sir Henniker Heaton's work on behalf of universal 
and imperial penny postage, something about the 
character of those appreciations and the representative 
men of all classes who have contributed to them. 
It was fitting that the symposium preserved in an 
illuminated album should have been made the crux 
of the evening's ceremony, and it was fitting that so 
brilliant and so polished an orator of Empire as Lord 
Curzon should have consented to make the speech 
of presentation. 

A commanding figure on the draped dais raised 
in the centre of the great hall, with the clustered light 
and the old civic banners above his head, Lord Curzon 
enraptured the brilliant assembly gathered around 
him in a speech that possessed the polish of fine oratory 
and the mellowing touch of human feeling. When 
he referred to the amount of happiness Sir Henniker 
had brought into the world, the mothers whom he 
had united to emigrant sons, and the " love knots " 
he had tied, by the wonder of the penny stamp, our 
eyes turned involuntarily to the white-haired figure 
of Sir Henniker himself, and it was easy to see that, 
as he listened with all the pride of a man who has 
served time well and who has lived to be recognized 
by his generation he was touched with profound 

And in his reply he spoke at times with a pardon- 
able emotion, but always with dignity. It was the 
speech of a man looking back upon the chronicle of 
his days, and seeing that it had been written in letters 
that were well and fair. It was, moreover, a speech 
of great natural modesty. It drew us closer to Sir 
Henniker, and, after all, it is not very difficult to be 
drawn close to a man who has drawn half the world 



Sir Henniker Heat on said : " One thought saves 
me from being utterly abashed at this great repre- 
sentative gathering. It is the belief that I am merely 
a letter-carrier or postman, and from the kindly light 
in your eyes I see you are going to ' tip the postman ' 
for bringing you letters of love from the millions of 
our brothers and cousins beyond the seas, who have 
now free, untaxed, unimpeded postal communication 
with the Mother Country. 

" If the British Government will spend as much 
money in electrical communications as she did in 
mail subsidies seventy years ago we can have penny- 
a-word cables to our most distant possessions. 

' Let us take warning by the Tower of Babel, 
and teach the workers in our great fabric of Empire 
to converse freely it cannot be too freely ; and 
electricity is the heaven-sent agency which has been 
placed at our disposal. 

" Let us adopt the formula, ' Twelve words for 
a shilling.' With this simple incantation we can 
transform the Empire, quadruple its resources, mul- 
tiply its strength, fill the National Exchequer, and make 
the face of the poor toiler radiant with happiness." 

During the evening the following letter was read 
from Mr Herbert Samuel : 


DEAR LORD CURZON, I greatly regret that, being 
confined to my room by doctor's orders, I cannot be 
present to-night at the gathering which will be held 
under the presidency of the Lord Mayor of London, 
to pay fitting recognition to Sir Henniker Heaton 
for his lifelong service to postal reform. 

As the latest of the long line of Postmasters-General 
whom he has harassed so efncientlv and with so much 


advantage to them and to the public, I should like 
to pay my tribute of thanks for his many suggestions, 
large and small, possible and impossible. Why should 
not the ox be grateful to the goad if it causes him the 
better to plough the field ? 

On the occasion of Sir John's 6and birthday he 
was good enough to send me a list of 62 desirable 
postal reforms. Several of them have since been 
carried into effect, with a few more which had escaped 
even his searching eye. But I am quite convinced 
that he will soon fill the gaps again, and we all hope 
to read on later birthday anniversaries fresh lists 
of seventy and of eighty changes which a truly pro- 
gressive Post Office would hasten to adopt for the 
common weal. 

In the hope that till those days, and later, he 
may enjoy his new honours, I ask leave for my 
Department and myself to join in the national mani- 
festation of gratitude which is rightly being paid to 
a great and tireless reformer. 
Believe me, 

Yours sincerely, 


The successful organization was due to the 
untiring energies of Lord Blyth, who devoted himself 
whole-heartedly to the task of giving his old friend the 
best and warmest of welcomes in the best and warmest 
of ways. He was ably seconded by Mr Freeman 
Murray, who undertook the duties of Honorary 
Secretary for his friend H. H. 


July 20th, 1912. 

The last act of the great drama is finished 
and it remains for me to try to say to you that I feel 
it utterly impossible to express my gratitude. I did 


not think it possible for any man to work as you have 
done, so generously, so unceasingly for your friend, 
night and day for months, without reward in order 
to do me honour. It is true that I suffered a good 
deal from official classes backed up by powerful 
politicians who made extraordinary efforts to prevent 
our carrying great reforms. It was a great and long- 
continued struggle, lasting over a quarter of a century. 
Your share in it, especially the Anglo-American post, 
is one of the most interesting chapters. However, 
I am, through your noble and unselfish efforts, amply 
rewarded, and in the years left me I trust I shall have 
an opportunity of showing my deep gratitude, and I 
hope you will call upon me in any trouble. We have 
learnt not to flatter each other, but like trusty warriors 
to defend each other. I pray for health and peace 
for you and yours in the days and hours to come. 

Your attached friend, 



IN the beautiful city of Geneva, lies at peace the 
great Postal Reformer, Sir John Henniker 
His restless spirit has found rest at last, 
and he who in time of peace fought so valiantly the 
battles of his fellow-men may now sleep undisturbed 
by sound of cannon and clash of arms. 

" To make communication as easy as speech 
and as free as air " was his life's ideal, and yet when 
he lay within the shadow of death communication 
with his own family was denied him. Telegraph lines 
that should have brought him loving messages were 
blocked with news of bloodshed and battle ; trains that 
should have carried his anxious family swiftly towards 
him were filled with troops hurrying to the Front. 

Sir John was among the English visitors in Carlsbad 
when War was declared. On September 2nd, 1914, 
with a party of other non-combatants, he left 
Carlsbad on the return journey to England which, 
alas, he was destined never to reach. 




I, George Platt Waller, Jr., American Vice and 
Deputy Consul at Carlsbad, do hereby certify that 



I, George Platt Waller Jr, American Vice and Deputy 
Consul at Karlsbad, do hereby certify that the bearer of 
this document Sir Her.niker Heaton, Baronet, former Postmaster 
General of Engladd, and Member of Parliament for many years 
is a British Subject, of great distinctionknd worldwide fame. 

As under the present distressing circumstances, the 
American Consulate has been requested to extend its good 
offices to the British Subjects, II hereby bespeak for 
Sir Henniker Heaton, any and all aid that it may be possible 
to extend under your jurisdiction in expediting his peaceful 
and speedy progress on his lawful occasions, both as a British 
Subject and as a Benefactor of the Human Race. 


American Vice & Deputy Consul. 

Given this 31st day of August 1914. 


the bearer of this document Sir Henniker Heaton, 
Baronet, former Postmaster-General of England, and 
Member of Parliament for many years, is a British 
subject, of great distinction and world-wide fame. 

As under the present distressing circumstances, 
the American Consulate has been requested to extend 
its good offices to the British Subjects, I hereby be- 
speak, for Sir Henniker Heaton, any and all aid that 
it may be possible to extend under your jurisdiction 
in expediting this peaceful and speedy progress on 
his lawful occasions, both as a British Subject and as 
a Benefactor of the Human Race. 

American Vice and Deputy Consul 

Given this 3ist day of August, 1914. 

Sir John was in bad health when he left Carlsbad, 
and on the journey home he was greatly agitated by 
the news of the " victorious German armies " which 
was circulated abroad. He was taken seriously ill 
whilst travelling, and only succeeded in reaching 
Geneva. For three days he lay unconscious, and 
died on the morning of September 8th, 1914. 

Words are inadequate to describe the kindness 
and sympathy of Lord Westbury, who did all for his 
friend that was humanly possible all indeed that 
the nearest relative could have done to obtain the 
best advice for Sir John while life lasted, and, when 
the end was approaching, to soften the blow to Lady 
Heaton as gently and considerately as might be. 
When all hope was over, he wrote : 


This is a most painful letter for me to have to 
write to you but I feel I must supplement my two 


telegrams (which I hope you have received) with 
some details of your dear husband's illness ; and, as 
it is quite uncertain when we may be able to leave, it 
is right that you should have some news as soon as 
possible. For some ten days before we left Carlsbad, 
on 2nd Sept., he took up his residence at my hotel 
in order to have the benefit of the services of my 
valet, and I naturally saw a great deal of him as we 
always had our evening meal together. He talked 
to me a great deal, and was constantly looking forward 
to seeing his " dear little wife," and so far as I could 
judge he was far better in general health on the eve 
of our departure than he had been during the whole 
of his stay at Carlsbad ; he was naturally very much 
upset at England going to war, and very much excited 
when news of disasters kept pouring in. We left in 
a special train for the Swiss frontier on 2nd Sept. 
and he and I occupied a first-class coupe and he bore 
the journey to the frontier exceedingly well, although 
he was perhaps rather imprudent in the matter of 
diet, and I often congratulated him on his ability to 
eat the unpalatable provisions we had to consume ; 
at the Swiss frontier we found a special train ready 
to bring us to Geneva, and before changing trains at 
4 a.m. I took care to see that he was properly wrapped 
up, and he was most cheerful and said that he had 
got on a very warm undergarment that " his dear 
little wife " had specially provided for him. I put 
him in the Swiss train, and then had to leave him as 
I was very busy making arrangements with Cook's 
agent on various matters connected with a lot of 
indigent English people for whom I had funds, and 
I also had to send several telegrams connected with 
our possible departure from here to the British Minister 
at Berne and the British Ambassador at Paris. I 
also had to arrange with passengers in various parts 
of the train about guaranteeing the cost of special 
from Geneva to England, etc. etc., the consequence 


being that I did not see him for about a couple of 
hours . Just before reaching Zurich about 6.30 a.m. 
my valet came to tell me that Sir Henniker had violent 
pains in his stomach and that Sir Benjamin Franklin 
(a distinguished retired Surgeon-General) was looking 
after him. I immediately went to him and found him 
in great agony. On arrival at Zurich we telegraphed 
to Berne (the next place we stopped at) for a doctor to 
bring some morphia and other remedies down to 
the station ; at Berne the doctor appeared, but before 
anything could be done the train was hurried off, 
and the doctor had to jump down when the train was 
moving and all he could do was to give me the address of 
a doctor at Geneva. He was somewhat easier between 
Berne and Geneva and I was in hopes that the gastric 
symptoms were improving. Within 5 minutes of 
his arrival at Geneva station he was in this hotel, 
and in another five minutes (before he had time to 
undress) he was in the doctor's hands ; this doctor, 
who could not speak English, informed me that he was 
suffering from an acute gastric attack and he pre- 
scribed accordingly. Some two hours afterwards my 
valet came to tell me that Sir Henniker was not feeling 
any relief and that he insisted upon having a doctor 
who could speak English*. Sir Benjamin Franklin and I 
decided to call in a Professor Major who was strongly 
recommended to us. By the time he arrived your 
poor husband was practically unable to answer any 
questions, and Professor Major admitted that under 
the circumstances he could make no attempt to diagnose 
the case. A few hours later, Mrs Barton, 1 an English 
lady living at Geneva, whom I have known for many 
years, came to see me and strongly recommended 
that a Professor Girard, whom she described as by 
far the cleverest medical man in Switzerland, should 
be sent for ; and I have ascertained since beyond 

1 Mrs Barton is a daughter of the late Sir Robert Peel, and her husband 
was for many years British Consul at Geneva. 


doubt that Professor Girard fully deserves such a 

He came and had a long consultation with the 3 
doctors and Sir Benjamin Franklin and quite con- 
vinced them that the gastric attack was merely an 
incident, and that the real trouble was a cerebral 
one caused by an aneurism, and that there was scarcely 
any hope after taking into consideration your poor 
husband's age and the fact that he had suffered from 
a stroke before ; and he advised that the most humane 
thing to do was to leave him quietly in his bed in the 
hope that nature would come to his assistance ; in 
this Sir Benjamin and I quite agreed. He was quite 
unconscious and suffering no pain and he has remained 
so ever since. Last night his temperature went up 
suddenly to 106 and we feared the worst ; this morning 
at 9 a.m. Dr Girard came again with the other doc- 
tors, and I am grieved to say that they all pronounced 
that the case was hopeless, and I fear I shall have to 
send you a final telegram within less than twenty- 
four hours. I can assure you that everything possible 
has been done for him, and Sir Benjamin Franklin 
has been a tower of strength, and I really don't know 
what I could have done without his help. Of course 
I will remain until the end and you can rely upon my 
acting as I should do in the case of any near relation 
of my own. I will come to see you on my return 
home and I will bring back all his papers and belongings. 
Sir Henniker was much beloved by all his Carlsbad 
friends and his illness is a great shock to many of 
them who have accompanied him from Carlsbad. I 
am very very sorry for you and his family. 
Believe me with much sympathy, 

Yours sincerely, 


The telegrams sent by Lord Westbury announcing 
the end did not reach Lady Henniker Heaton for some 


days, and it was from the morning papers that she 
first learnt of her irreparable loss. 

Later, Lady Henniker Heaton received a letter 
from Mr Oswald Cheeke who was with Sir John at 
the end. In this letter there was given to Lady 
Henniker Heaton the supreme consolation of a know- 
ledge of the Love that is stronger than Death. 

Sir John had lain unconscious for three days ; 
as the end was seen to be imminent, Mr Cheeke spoke 
to Sir John saying he was writing to Lady Henniker 
Heaton, but he could not succeed in rousing him. 
Mr Cheeke then bent down and spoke Lady Henniker 
Heaton's Christian name " Rose." The beloved name 
alone could break through the silence and pierce 
through the deepening shadows of death. Sir John 
raised his head to speak his last word " Love " and 
fell into a deep calm sleep in which his spirit passed 

" I know that death is nothing but a shadow, 

That nothing ever dies. 
I seem to see Love clasping Life triumphant 

With glory in his eyes." E. W. 


Telegram from His Majesty King George to 
J. Henniker Heat on (eldest son) : 

The King has heard wi,th much regret of the death 
of Sir John Henniker Heaton, and desires me to convey 
to you the expression of his sympathy with you and 
with Lady Henniker Heaton in your sorrow. 






A popular article was written in 1907 by H. H. in the "Nineteenth 
Century" in order to expose the ''red-tape" methods of the Post 
Office. Its publication met with so much appreciation and amuse- 
ment that it is here reprinted. 

WE all form mental pictures of unseen 
potent individualities who influence our 
lives and fortunes. In these unvarnished 
pages I propose to give the popular 
notion of the Postmaster-General at work. It would 
be unfair to accuse me of malicious caricature and 
exaggeration. I am not, be it distinctly under- 
stood, giving my personal impressions of the distin- 
guished holder of the great office of Magister Nuntiorum. 
I do not paint him as he appears to his numerous 
friends, an able, conscientious, amiable man ; but 
such as he must loom before the general public who 
only know him through his replies to their complaints, 
and his official attitude to the reforms they have at 
heart. He may do well to ponder the picture, un- 
flattering as it seems. 

" O, wad some power the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as ithers see us ! " 

The Postmaster-General of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland has taken his seat in his 
office at St Martin's-le-Grand and the Secretary enters, 

n 257 


while a huge basket of letters is borne in by a sturdy 

THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL : It is satisfactory to 
know that the annual profits of the British Post Office 
exceed five millions sterling. It has occurred to me 
to ask you for a list of the requirements and grievances 
of the public. 

THE SECRETARY : We have been forced to grant 
over fifty so-called reforms during the past twenty 
years. What is the result ? Here are a bundle of 
letters asking for at least fifty more ! 

P.M.-GEN. : What is that in your hand ? 

SEC. : Another long lecture from the hon. member 
for Canterbury, urging us to institute universal penny 
postage, and to purchase the cables for the State. 
He says there is intense feeling in commercial circles 
on both subjects, and declares that the attitude of 
the department will sooner or later be recognized as 
one of criminal neglect ; that in this crisis in our 
economic history the Post Office is strangling every 
nascent industry, and facilitating foreign competition ; 
that we resemble the savages in the Pacific who cut 
down trees for the sake of the fruit, etc., etc. 

P.M.-GEN. : That will do I will reply to that 
myself. Give it me. Thank you. He will send our 
response to ' The Times " ; and your inexorable 
head-masterly style would be meat and drink to those 
ravening leader-writers. 

SEC. : Here are two letters on which action should 
be taken. They reveal a gross evasion of the law. 
A New York lady says that all letters sent to her in 
Canada from England are redirected to her in the 
United States without extra charge. It is one penny 
postage from Canada to the United States, so that she 


enjoys penny postage from Great Britain to New 

Then again here is a letter from Mr George Marples 
of Omaha saying that he sends his letters for England 
to his Canadian house and they are redirected to 
England free of extra charge, so he enjoys penny 
postage to England. 

P.M.-GEN. : This is an awful state of affairs, but 
I am afraid we are powerless. I believe those flippant 
Americans would maintain this abuse as an excellent 
joke ; and the Canadian Post Office would laugh the 


SEC. : Here is a closely reasoned letter urging 
that the time has arrived for a final and necessary 
development of the express delivery service of letters 
in London and large cities. The correspondent sends 
a specimen of an express delivery stamp, threepence 
in value, to be sold at every post office. Any letter 
posted bearing this stamp will be despatched by a 
bicycle rider immediately on receipt at the office of 
delivery on any day of the week up to a late hour. 
The bicycle riders would leave the great post offices 
in the S.E., S.W., E.C., and the other dictricts every 
hour. The writer estimates that the revenue will be 
increased by a million sterling per annum. Every 
merchant and person of means will carry these special 
delivery stamps with him. 

P.M.-GEN. : Inform the writer that I will look 
into the matter ; but it would take considerable time 
to carry out such a reform. I remember I have 
before me also a suggestion also that the time has 


arrived for expediting delivery of the mails in large 
towns by establishing three classes of mail matter : 
i. Letters and post-cards ; 2. Newspapers; 3. Parcels; 
which respectively should be delivered by first, second, 
and third-class postmen, priority in delivery being given 
to the first class. 

SEC. : A writer from York asks that cartes ttU- 
grammes should be introduced i.e. correspondence 
should be transmitted from one part of a city to 
another through pneumatic tubes at a special rate. 

P.M. -GEN. : Let him wait for a perfecting of the 
express system : I don't approve of these underground 

SEC. : Here is a letter from a Glasgow man saying 
his letters are not delivered until 8 o'clock, whereas 
he got them twenty years ago at 7.30 a.m., before he 
went to business, and now he sometimes does not get 
his letters until night time. He has been told that 
the postal system generally has increased so much 
that individuals must put up with the inconvenience. 
He does not think this reply satisfactory. 

P.M.-GEN. : Just acknowledge his letter. You 
cannot satisfy that type of mind. At least he gets 
more time for digesting breakfast, besides half an 
hour's respite from bad news. 

SEC. : A querulous person complains that " though 
living in the heart of London, I never get any letters 
here, by any chance, until a quarter-past eight in the 
morning, and frequently the last post, due at 9 p.m., 
is not delivered until 10 p.m. As you are aware, there 
is no delivery of letters on Sunday ; which puts any- 
one like myself, who has a large correspondence with 
the Continent, to great inconvenience ; there is no 
proper outgoing mail to the provinces on that day ; 


I have to pay a penny extra in order to send a foreign 
letter on the same day by the night mails, and even so 
I have to go, or to send, to Central District offices . 
Worse than all this, and a positive outrage upon six 
millions of Londoners, it is impossible to have a letter 
delivered on Sunday at a less cost than lod. This 
sum I have frequently paid during the last few months, 
owing to serious sickness in my family. It is all 
very well to say that I can use the telegraph, if away ; 
but a telegram costs 6d. and you cannot possibly say 
in a telegram what you may wish to say in a letter. 

" There is no metropolis in the world that is so 
shamefully served in the matter of letters, especially 
in the matter of this outrageous Sunday interdict, 
as London." 

P.M. -GEN. : This is one who would set fire to the 
Post Office to roast his eggs. Snub him. 


SEC. : Now we have numerous attempts to make 
you pay for accidents to postal packets during trans- 
mission. The favourite argument seems to be that, 
since a common carrier is liable for loss or injury of 
goods entrusted to him, you ought to be. They 
forget you are not a common carrier, but a State 
official, protected from liability by Act of Parliament. 

P.M.-GEN. : The total liability for loss and damage 
would be but a small portion of my annual profit, 
but I cannot disobey an Act of Parliament. 

SEC. : Here is our answer to a claim for some postage 
stamps stolen by a postman : 


October ^rd. 

GENTLEMEN, I am directed by the Postmaster- 
General to refer to your communication of the 2gth 
ultimo on the subject of an unregistered letter addressed 
to you by Mrs G. Gregson, Warden Law, Houghton- 
le-Spring, posted on the ist of June last, which was 
found, minus 55. postage stamps enclosed by the 
sender, in the possession of a postman who was arrested 
on the 22nd of June last for stealing letters. 

The Postmaster-General regrets to say that he 
has unfortunately little doubt that the missing postage 
stamps were stolen by the postman in question. But, 
as you are aware, he is by law exempt from liability 
in respect of the loss of any postal packet ; and he only 
accepts liability in respect of postal packets (other 
than those sent by Parcel Post) when they have been 

The Postmaster-General is sorry for the loss sus- 
tained by your customer ; but, as she neglected to 
avail herself of the system of registration, he is pre- 
cluded from enter taming any claim for compensation. 
I am, gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 


P.M. -GEN. : An excellent letter, mild yet cogent. 
How is it these people will not take the caution to 
register ? 

SEC. : Their flimsy pretence is that the charge for 
registration, twopence, is too high. 

P.M.-GEN. : Ha, ha ! 

SEC. : Ho, ho, ho ! The Rev. C. F. Roberts, 
Abergele, North Wales, complains that a friend sent 
him from Madeira some embroidery, value i, ios., 
unregistered, and that the parcel was delivered soaking 
wet, having come in contact with port wine. The 


parcel was opened in the presence of the postman and 
a form filled up noting the condition of the contents 

The Post Office refused compensation. 

P.M.-GEN. : Write offering to dry the lace for him. 
If discoloured, it will appear antique, and be of more 
value. As to the smell of wine, none but a rabid 
teetotaller could complain of that. 

SEC. : Here is another : 

LONDON : June iSth. 

SIR, We are large manufacturers of typewriting 
machines. We sent one of these machines carefully 
packed to a customer. We insured it and paid a 
special extra fee for insurance. The machine arrived 
broken, and we have had to compensate the owner. 
Will you please after examining into the case and 
ascertaining the truth send us i, us. 6d. 

Yours faithfully, 

F. & Co. 

One of our able officials, suppressing his natural 
indignation, has written this reply : 

I am directed by the Postmaster-General to state 
that you will see on p. 69 of the " Post Office Guide " 
that he is relieved from all responsibility even had he 
been satisfied that the parcel was properly packed, 
and no claim for compensation can be entertained. 

P.M.-GEN. : A calm and dignified rebuke. 

SEC. : The next is simply outrageous ; I trust 
it may not make you feel unwell : such letters some- 
times upset my assistants so seriously that I have to 
give them a week's leave. 


I write to ask why should the Post Office not be 
liable just the same as any other common carrier 
for all goods lost or stolen while being carried. It's 
too ridiculous that a taxpayer should both suffer 
from democrat confiscation and the remains of Norman 
tyranny. If any private person ran the Post Office, 
would they be exempted ? And even if the Post 
Office was blameless, would not the interest of the 
taxpayer be to get the benefit of the principle of 
mutual insurance against loss ? Of all people the 
Government should be the easiest, not the hardest, 
to make liable for any loss they are connected with. 

P.M. -GEN. : Fortunately I am specially protected 
by Act of Parliament from against such rapacity. 

No doubt if Carter Paterson, or some other carrying 
firm attempted to protect themselves in this manner 
the public would desert them, and decline to deal 
any longer with them. But I enjoy a monopoly, and 
these grumblers should attack that, not me. 

SEC. : You may remember that at our last inter- 
view I presented you with some thousands of reply- 
paid telegraph forms on each of which the public 
had paid sixpence or more. Our rule is not to allow 
them to be used after two months have elapsed, and 
to refuse to return the money to sender or receiver. 
The letter in my hand is from the Member of Parlia- 
ment whom I named. He has a sort of talent for 
inventing postal grievances, which he brings the 
public to believe they are suffering from ; and under 
our earliest Postmaster-General he might have been 
in danger of the Tower. Nothing, as you will observe, 
is too trivial to escape his censure : 



you for a somewhat cynical memorandum defending 
official morality on the subject of delayed telegram 
reply forms. 

It does not place the Post Office in a more dignified 
position. One is naturally prejudiced against any 
debtor who pleads the Statutes of Limitation to 
defeat honest claims ; and here the debtor is an 
millionaire department eluding the return of sixpence. 

My view is that these reply forms should be avail- 
able for at least twelve months, and after that period 
the money should be given back to the sender of the 
original message without limit of time. This is 
common honesty. Your sense of humour will, how- 
ever, probably be alive to the absurdity of multiplying 
" checks " devised, like the elaborate machinery on 
Rob Roy's sporran, to safeguard a " saxpence " or 
two. I am, your obedient servant, 


P.S. Since writing the above a friend has sent 
me the following note : 


April 2jth, 1905. 

The enclosed reply telegraph form represents six- 
pence which the Post Office has been battening on 
for some months, and now I find, owing to an absolutely 
irrational rule of being only valuable for two months, 
it has become useless. It is impossible to imagine 
there can be any honest or sane reason for such a 
rule at any rate, one that would appeal to any body 
of business men. It is almost a worse swindle than 
the Postal Order, one which you helped to get rid of, 
for in this the post authorities forfeit the money 
absolutely. It seems absurd to have two franked 
telegraph forms. Why should not they simply enclose 


one of their ordinary stamped (sixpenny) forms ? 
This would save a considerable sum and lots of trouble. 

Yours very sincerely, 


P.M. -GEN. : You may reply to this. We must 
be careful how we treat a Member of Parliament. 
Do not give way one inch. We cannot resist his 
suggestions when public opinion is stirred. But it 
never is over these small matters. Refuse to budge, 
but avoid acerbity, as far as possible : in any case 
avoid argument. 


SEC. : " Dublin " asks " That the tariff of charges 
for the transmission of telegrams shall be freed of 
such anomalies as have been exposed e.g. ironworks 
as one word, steel works as two words, or 52 Leonards- 
on-Sea as one word and Charing Cross as two words." 

It is also demanded that the names of all places 
in the United Kingdom should be charged as one 

" Crouch End " asks that the name of that place 
shall be charged as one word and inquires why Charing 
Cross should be charged as two words, and St Pancras 
as one word in a telegram. ' Hastings " complains 
that he was charged two words for N.B., whereas 
Scotland with four times more letters is charged as 
one word. Another writer complains that s.s. was 
charged as two words, but Steamship as one word. 
Another that H.M.S. be charged as one word for the 
benefit of officers and men. There seems to be con- 


siderable feeling about the charge for H.M.S., though 
here again the amount at stake is but a penny ! Here 
is a letter on the subject : 

I take the opportunity of suggesting the iniquity 
as it seems to me of the Post Office charging every 
bluejacket and every member of the public the letters 
H.M.S. as three words in a telegram. I should have 
thought there should have been a symbol counting 
as one word to mean His Majesty's Ship. I believe 
the cable companies do the same, but am not certain, 
but it leads to words like battleship, cruiser, etc., 
being substituted for the proper title H.M.S. Seeing 
that four figures count as one word, it would not be 
a great stretch to treat the three letters H.M.S. as 
one word. 

P.M. -GEN. : Assure the writer that anything touch- 
ing the happiness of the British sailor is peculiarly 
interesting to me ; but I fear that the state of tele- 
graphic revenue will not yet allow of this concession. 

SEC. : Here are documents asserting that : 
(a) Freedom of communication by cable is one 
of the most vital strategic interests of the Empire, 
and, as such, ought not to be dependent on the policy 
of private companies. It is in the highest degree 
expedient to encourage, cheapen, and facilitate com- 
munication by means of the electric cable between 
the several portions of the Empire. The rates charged 
by the cable companies, for the transmission of 
messages are, generally speaking, excessive and in 
some cases prohibitive. The foreign and Colonial 
trade of the United Kingdom is absolutely dependent 
on the free use of the cables. The British Government 
if possible with the co-operation of the chief Colonial 
Governments should acquire the rights and property 
of the cable companies at a valuation (on their present 


market value) and work the cables, at the lowest 
remunerative rates, with a view to the utmost possible 
employment of the wires by day and night for the 
benefit of all her Majesty's subjects. 

(b) That, since the charge for telegrams in both 
France and England does not exceed a halfpenny per 
word, the rate from England to France should be 
one penny per word, instead of twopence per word 
as at present. That telegrams should be sent also 
to Belgium, Holland, and Germany for a penny per 
word, and reductions in rate made in the case of Egypt 
and other countries. 

(c) That the cost of a telephone message between 
London and Paris be reduced to 2s. 6d. for three 
minutes' conversation, instead of 8s. as at present. 

One person observes that it is more expensive to 
speak through the London-Paris telephone than to 
utter libels and slanders at a public meeting. 

Here are letters from members of the public 
cormorants asking that the names and addressee 
not exceeding eight words in all of the sender and 
addressee of a telegram should be transmitted free ; 
and that twenty words in place of twelve words shall 
be sent for sixpence. 

P.M. -GEN. : Point out that we lose heavily on 
telegraphs ; but do not explain why that it is chiefly 
because we bought them so dear, and have to pay 
heavy interest that would be turned against us. 


SEC. : Now for a halfpenny grievance : 

SIR, You will confer a great favour on the com- 
munity at trifling cost to the department, and remove 


a constant source of irritation and annoyance, by 
ordering that all official post cards shall be sold at 
their face value that is, a halfpenny each, in place 
of three farthings. You now charge a penny for a 
post card ; why not, therefore, a halfpenny for a 
halfpenny post card ? The richest Post Office in the 
world should be above wringing farthings from the 
poor ; and, if it must differ from other Post Offices 
(as it does in this matter), let it be in the direction of 
liberality. England is the only country in the world 
that charges more than face value for post cards. 
At Gibraltar I can buy halfpenny post cards for 
a halfpenny each. In that out-of-the-way country, 
Guatemala, post cards are sold at their face value. 

Yours faithfully, 

P.M. -GEN. : Tell the correspondent I regret I 
cannot afford to sacrifice the halfpence. 

SEC. : Ever since we gave the public a halfpenny 
post card (the " letter of the poor ") we have been 
badgered on the subject of the rules regarding them. 
What are we to say to this ? 


SIR, I beg to ask whether your attention has been 
directed to the fines imposed on the public for affixing 
stamps on post cards on the back in place of the address 
side ; whether there is any justification for your 
officers obliterating with stamping machines the 
stamps so affixed in addition to fining the receivers 
of the post cards ; under what rule or postal regulation 
fines are imposed for stamps so wrongly affixed ; and 
whether there is in the rules any penalty for affixing 
stamps on the backs of letters in place of the address 
side. Yours truly, 

W. M. 


P.M.-GEN. : Write telling this fellow that we all 
hate halfpenny matter, and that the stamp must be 
affixed on the address side. Tell him, too, that I do 
not propose to alter the rule. Put our reason obscurely, 
but the decision emphatically. No penalty is imposed 
for affixing stamps to the backs of letters ; but I do 
not propose to alter the rule. 

SEC. : What about this ? 


August i^th, 1906. 

SIR, Yesterday morning (before I was down) my 
servant took in five post cards each bearing a penny 
stamp on the back in place of the address, and I had 
to pay is. 3d. for them. 

They were sent me by the Maire oj Trtyort, and I 
should imagine that this abominable surcharge does 
not arise in the French Post Office, or surely he would 
know of the irregularity. 

Yours respectfully, 

H. H. W. 

P.M.-GEN. : Inform this correspondent that the 
charge of 3d. on each post card represented double the 
deficient postage at the letter rate, and was therefore 
rightly collected on each card. I do not recognize 
the penny on the back of each card. 

SEC. : Now comes a discontented stationer. 

SIR, Your department charges me 20 to 30 per 
cent above cost price for printing halfpenny stamps 
on " private post cards " sent to them for impression. 
I save them the trouble and expense of supplying me 
with gummed and perforated halfpenny stamps by 
forwarding 100,000 post cards for the impression. I 
ask that the charge be abolished. 

Yours truly, 



P.M.-GEN. : Tell this correspondent I cannot 
afford to comply with his request. Hint indirectly 
that we regard the " private " post card as a specially 
odious and illegitimate missive. 

SEC. : Listen to this ungrateful man : 

SIR, You charge me 2s. for a book of stamps of 
the value of is. njd. I beg to enclose you a similar 
book of stamps issued in Switzerland with twenty- 
four stamps for twenty-four pence or the equivalent. 
Why not charge face value as in Switzerland, where 
the people are not so rich as in England ? 

Yours truly, 


P.M.-GEN. : Tell the correspondent I cannot afford 
it. Do not let out anything about our total profits 
on stationery. 

SEC. : They even complain of the newspaper 
rates. Hear this : 


SIR, I beg to enclose two newspaper wrappers, 
one from New Zealand on which was a penny stamp, 
and the other to New Zealand containing an illustrated 
paper of exactly the same weight, and for which I 
am charged 3jd. Why has a New Zealander to pay 
to England less than a third of the price I have to pay 
for a similar newspaper from England to Wellington 
(N.Z.) ? Yours faithfully, 

J. L. 

P.M.-GEN. : Inform this correspondent that I 
cannot see my way to make any alteration in the 


charge. Give no reasons. This complaint is as un- 
reasonable as another which has reached me namely, 
that the cost of postage of the " Nineteenth Century " 
to Canada is one penny, but that we charge 3d. for 
sending it to any part of England. From a Post 
Office point of view the colonists are spoilt children. 

SEC. : A number of letters are from country people 
asking that letter-boxes be attached to all through 
trains, and even to tram-cars on the principal lines. 
Here is one of them : 

With reference to the point I raised of a travelling 
post office on the mail train. If we could send off 
letters by the 2.20 p.m. train to the Continent we 
should save a day on the passage between London, 
Switzerland, Italy, and Southern France. It would 
mean that anyone writing to me in Lucerne and 
posting his letter on the train at six o'clock in the 
morning in the summer would secure my receiving it 
the next morning. I could then reply the same day 
and send my letter by the 2.20 p.m. mail train, and he 
would receive my reply on the morning after. If my 
letter had to wait till the next service it could not be 
delivered in Lucerne till one day later. 

P.M. -GEN. : Point out that this would involve an 
expenditure of at least eight eenpence for each " travel- 
ling " letter-box, and regret that I cannot see my 
way to face this. 

Sec. : We have repeatedly received the following 
suggestion : 

SIR, It would be a great convenience to the public 
to send the money with the postal or telegraph Money 
Order to the residence of the person to whom it is 
addressed. They do this, to the great convenience of 


the public, especially tradesmen, in India, Germany, 
and other countries. Fourteen million journeys to 
the post offices would be saved every year. How 
much better it would be for one postman to deliver 
two hundred Money Orders than for two hundred, 
individuals to walk to the post offices to get the money. 
The German system, too, is a guarantee that the 
money is safely delivered to the right person, while 
thousands of hours of valuable time are saved to the 
people. Yours truly, 


A Manchester merchant begs : 

That the mandat-carte system so successful and 
profitable on the Continent shall be brought into 
operation in this country the money being delivered 
with the mandat at the payee's residence. 

P.M.-GEN. : This is absurd. If a man is too im- 
portant to go to a post office for his money, let him 
send a clerk. They may be bold enough to trust to 
the letter-carrier's honesty in Germany and elsewhere ; 
we shall not be so foolhardy. But do not, of course, 
refer to the second reason. 

SEC. : Another complainant requires that the 
charges on inland telegraph Money Orders should 
be reduced and the money sent with the order to 
the residence of the receiver as in Switzerland. A 
prominent Member of Parliament writes that he sent 
is. id. for a magazine, and he had to pay is. 5d. for 
the telegram in addition. 

P.M.-GEN. : Say this must have been an emergency 
which could not often recur. 

SEC. : Here are nearly a hundred letters from 
people who complain that we will not redirect their 
correspondence because they were living in boarding- 


houses or lodgings. They are a lot of people mostly 
without votes, and of no importance, and we therefore 
do not see why we should give them the facilities they 
desire. I have drawn up and printed a letter to answer 
all such complaints as the one I will read, which is 
from some medical man : 


SIR, I have moved to in the same postal 

district. As my private address has, unfortunately, 
got on to the Parliamentary register, people will 
direct letters to my old address, and I am quite helpless 
to prevent their doing so. This involves delay, and 
sometimes very serious inconvenience. 

Would you oblige me by drawing the attention of 
the Postmaster-General to the grievance, and ask 
that lodgers may be placed on the same footing as 

Yours very faithfully, 

J. F. L. 

P.M. -GEN. : Inform the correspondent civilly that 
his request cannot be granted. 

SEC. : Here are numerous letters from persons 
complaining that their cross-country posts are deplor- 
ably deficient, and arranged so badly that the " Times " 
or " Daily Mail " reaches Paris before it gets to their 
homes in Dorchester and other places. 

P.M.-GEN. : Send the usual official answers. They 
must live in some place where our mailing arrangements 
will be more satisfactory to them. 

SEC. : Some fussy man writes : 

SIR, I enclose a prospectus just issued for a motor 
mail coach company, in which it is stated that each 
motor mail coach will produce a profit of 350 per 


annum to the contractor. Would it not be possible 
to have these vans made at Woolwich Arsenal and 
driven by Post Office officials or soldiers ? The Post 
Office has already a staff of highly skilled mechanics 
in its engineering department. 

Yours truly, 

J. G. 

P.M.-GEN. : If the Post Office were a private 
business of course I would do this. Tell the writer 
that I will give the matter careful consideration. 
But it would involve such a disturbance of well-settled 
routine that I see little hope of adopting it. 

SEC. : A writer asks that registered benefit societies 
should be permitted to open current accounts at the 
Post Office Savings Banks. 

P.M.-GEN. : I will consider this. Their money 
cannot harm us. 

SEC. : Someone alleges that the late Sir W. 
Harcourt thought that all Post Office expenditure 
for sites and buildings should be carried to a capital 
account and spread over several years instead of 
being defrayed out of current revenue. 

P.M.-GEN. : He did ; but, though a great man, 
he was never Postmaster-General. 

SEC. : Somebody at Norwich begs that the " cash 
on delivery " system should be introduced. 

P.M.-GEN. : Tell him it is feared the stores would 
flood the country with goods and ruin local shop- 
keepers. I do not myself fear it, but you are not 
to reveal that. 

SEC. : One from Edinburgh begs that the com- 
mission on foreign and colonial Money Orders should 
be reduced. He points out that from Paris to London 
a penny is charged for commission on a five shilling 


order by the French Post Office ; but from London to 
Paris the English Post Office charges fourpence for 
commission on a five shilling Money Order. 

P.M.-GEN. : Tell him I am of opinion that four- 
pence is a fair charge for such a convenience. These 
Scots are very keen to save a bawbee. Hint very 
delicately that it is open to him to reside for the future 
in Paris. 

SEC. : A colonist thinks that the parcel rates to 
the Colonies should be made uniform and greatly 
reduced. There are thirty-eight different rates to 
the seventy-four countries in the list based on no 
common principle, the charges being in most cases 
higher to our Colonies than to foreign countries. 

P.M.-GEN. : The Post Office is primarily a letter- 
carrying agency, and senders of parcels are not entitled 
to dictate our arrangements. In my opinion the 
Colonial Parcel Post tariff is a model of symmetry 
and liberality. 

SEC. : A peremptory person demands that the 
repeated applications of the Australasian and other 
Colonies for an exchange of Postal Orders between 
Great Britain and her dependencies should be immedi- 
ately complied with. 

P.M.-GEN. : Colonial ideas are not necessarily to 
prevail here. Did they not try to force Preference 
on us ? Tell him that of all the wild and visionary 
Imperialistic schemes no, say merely that there are 
grave objections to his proposal. 

SEC. : A philatelic collector states that the present 
illegible, indistinct, and smudgy postmarks on letters 
cause general dissatisfaction. The clean and distinct 
American postmarking machine should, therefore, be 
introduced in the British postal service. 


P.M. -GEN. : These marks give us satisfaction, for 
they render it more difficult to prove delay in trans- 
mission. But say that the American machines are 
being slowly introduced, and will in the course of a 
generation no, of a few years be universal. 

SEC. : A publisher asks that the rules requiring a 
periodical, in order to pass as a " registered newspaper," 
to be published at intervals not exceeding seven days, 
and to contain a certain proportion of news and 
articles of a given character should be abolished, so 
that such magazines as the " Nineteenth Century " 
should no longer be excluded from the advantages 
of the newspaper postage. He says that a paper 
weighing 2j pounds goes through the post for a half- 
penny, and a magazine the same weight is charged 8|d. 

P.M.-GEN. : My hands are tied by Act of Parlia- 
ment. But personally I regard this excess charge on 
reviews and magazines as a tax on luxuries, and there- 
fore justifiable. 

SEC. : A person asks that the fine for insufficient 
postage shall not exceed the deficiency ; that a half- 
penny fine, in addition to the deficient postage, shall 
be the maximum for an inland and a penny for a 
foreign letter. 

P.M.-GEN. : No doubt the sender should be fined, 
not the receiver ; but we cannot get at the former. 
Our view is, that the more severely we punish the 
unlucky addressee, the more likely he is to revenge 
himself on the sender, and cure that individual of the 
habit of neglecting to pay postage. 

SEC. : A clergyman asks that the charge for the 
registration of a letter should not exceed a penny. 
He says that he saves a penny by posting unstamped 
all letters requiring care, but he puts two penny 


stamps inside each. The Post Office takes very great 
care of these letters more care than if they were 

P.M.-GEN. : He is not ashamed to cheat the revenue, 
and does not deserve an answer. Twopence will be 
the charge while I am in office. 

SEC. : Two traders request that the minimum charge 
for the sample post should be a halfpenny for two 
ounces a change greatly desired by the trading 
public. These firms say that if allowed to put samples 
of cloth or linen inside each open envelope they would 
increase trade enormously. One firm states that they 
would send a million extra samples through the post 
every year, and thousands of people would be con- 
venienced. Under present rules only paper can be 
sent by the halfpenny post. 

P.M.-GEN. : These millionaire advertising traders 
can well afford the extra halfpenny. Send a regretful 

SEC. : A Londoner holds that as the regulations in 
the " Postal Guide " are drawn up in the interests of the 
department, and are full of pitfalls, the principles of 
interpretation being apparently reducible to two 
(i) Read the regulations as unfavourably to the public 
as possible ; and (2) never alter a decision once pro- 
nounced the " Postal Guide " should be revised in the 
interests of the public, and the regulations should be 
at least grammatical and, if possible, perfectly clear. 

P.M.-GEN. : Tell him codes are never light reading, 
and necessitate a staff of official interpreters, but that 
if he will revise the " Guide " on the lines he indicates 
and send me the draft I will 

SEC. : Pigeonhole it ! Ho, ho, ho ! 

P.M.-GEN. : Ha, ha, ha ! 


SEC. : A mechanic has devised an improved letter 
pillar-box, such as that of Austria or Germany, to 
prevent thefts. 

P.M.-GEN. : Tell him this scheme has been under 
consideration do not say for twenty-five years. 

SEC. : We are asked : That an Imperial, and if 
possible also an international postage stamp be brought 
into use, and that until this is done a room should be 
set apart in each of the more important post offices 
in the kingdom for the sale of foreign and colonial 
stamps (as is done in some of the Colonies), in order 
to enable commercial men to send stamps for 
replies, etc. 

Captain Montgomery (Durban) points out the 
difficulty he has in sending id., 2d., 3d., or 6d. to 
England for replies to letters, or to buy nick-nacks, 
newspapers, etc., that are advertised. He strongly 
urges that stamps be taken from all parts of the 
Empire and exchanged by the British and other post 
offices even at a small percentage. It would be an 
immense convenience. The Postmaster-General of 
New Zealand is in favour of the proposal. 

P.M.-GEN. : Our new coupon does away with the 
necessity for this to a great extent. Refuse. 

SEC. : " Man of Kent " suggests : " That an 
Agricultural Parcel Post be established at special low 
rates for dairy produce, poultry, vegetables, fruit, etc., 
as a practical contribution towards the relief of the 
agricultural population. 

P.M.-GEN. : Tell him it was suggested in the 
eighties. But we cannot favour one section of the 
population over another, even if Kent were reduced 
to a desert. 

SEC. : Here is a heavy batch of letters complaining 


of fines for breaking the halfpenny post regulations. 
It is said that only two persons in the world postal 
officials profess to understand what is a letter, as 
distinguished from a circular letter, and that these 
two eminent authorities disagree. Miss W., a Dulwich 
Church worker, sent out twenty-one circulars (half- 
penny postage) for help for Guy's Hospital. Every 
recipient was fined double the letter deficiency, because 
the amount of the subscription due was written and 
not printed. 

P.M. -GEN. : She defied the regulation, and the 
subscribers must pay. Every English subject is pre- 
sumed to know postal law. 

SEC. : An individual complains that postmen are 
now no longer allowed in rural districts to purchase 
Postal Orders at the local office for the public and 
enclose them in letters left open for the purpose. 
Another man complains that the rural postman is 
not allowed to take a letter asking for a Postal Order 
to his postmaster unless the letter bears a penny stamp. 

P.M. -GEN. : Postmen, rural or urban, must obey 
me. They are the servants of the department, not 
of the public. Refuse. 

SEC. : What shall I say in reply to this ? 

I venture to bring to your notice a hardship to 
anyone buying a Government annuity. That is, the 
necessity of first selling out of the Government funds, 
at present at great loss. Surely a simple form of 
transfer might do instead. 

For example, I wish to buy a Government annuity, 
but I do not wish in my old age to scramble on less 
than seventy pounds a year. That sum I could get 
after my next birthday but for this selling out, which 
would reduce my capital so much (as the funds now 


are) that I must put off the long-wished-for day for 
years. And this while every penny I possess is in the 
Government's own hands, in the 2,\ per cent Consols 
and the Post Office. 

Of course, if one could make by selling out, that 
would be another story, but I am told that will never 
be again. 

Please forgive me for thus intruding on you. 

P.M. -GEN. : Say I am helpless. 

SEC. : A correspondent asks if the Postmaster- 
General is aware that the Post Office Savings Bank 
refuses to take sixpences on deposit. Will he explain 
why a depositor is allowed to withdraw 193. 6d. but 
is not allowed to deposit I2S. 6d. in the Savings Bank, 
and whether he will give instructions to abolish this 

P.M. -GEN. : Tell this correspondent that the refusal 
of the Post Office Savings Bank to take fractions of a 
shilling on deposit is based on the provisions of the 
Post Office Savings Bank Act of 1861, and no change 
could therefore be made without legislation, which 
legislation I do not intend to introduce. 

SEC. : Here is a letter from " F." (Forest Gate) 
complaining that he cannot put less than one shilling 
in the Savings Bank ; and he asks you to reduce the 

P.M.-GEN. : Send him the usual negative answer, 
whatever it is. 

SEC. : A letter from Rev. J. C., clergyman in 
Banffshire, complains that he was fined a penny because 
a post card sent to him had tinsel on it. 

P.M.-GEN. : He ought to be fined a shilling. 

SEC. : Here are letters from Liverpool and other 
cities complaining that registered letters to Spain 


were delivered, but minus the bank-notes. They can 
get no compensation, and the consul at Malaga says 
that letters are regularly tampered with. 

P.M.-GEN. : Tell these good people that I am, 
under Act of Parliament, not responsible. 


SEC. : It is now lunch time and I have not gone 
through a quarter of my complaints. 

P.M.-GEN. : What about a consultative committee ? 
It is unquestionably true that no business man would 
dare to irritate his customers as we do in the Post 
Office. As we have no business man in our de- 
partment, might it not be worth while to adopt the 
suggestion made for the appointment of a permanent 
consultative committee of business men to sit with 
me and advise me as to the requirements of the 
public ? 

SEC. : There are numerous fatal objections, the 
first being that we officials should consider ourselves 
deeply insulted, and should resign in a body. The 
second is 

P.M.-GEN. : Say no more. Let us go to lunch. 


Abdullah, Sultan, his banishment, 

76. 77 

Aberdeen, Lord, in Edinburgh, 58 

Abergele, 262 

Addison, Joseph, quoted, 25 

Adelaide, H. H. at, 100 

Agricultural Conference in Jamaica, 

Parcel Post, 279 

Alexandra, Queen, thanks H. H., 

Algiers, 1 88 

Allen, Captain J. D., 47 

Alverstone, Lord, on Government 
Whips, 23 

Amettes, France, 61 

Amsterdam Exhibition, the, 10 

Anderson, Sir James, on the Mauri- 
tian cable, 81, 224 

Anglo-American Parliamentary Chess 
Tournament, an, 52 

Penny Postage, n, 36, 83, 135, 

157, 191-197. 27. 247 

Anglo- Australian Parliamentary Chess 
Match, an, 53 

Penny Postage, establishment 

of, II, 31, 180, 182-184, 199, 200, 
210, 215-221 

Arctic expeditions, 145, 149 
Ardfert Abbey, Kerry, 120 
Arena, H. H. on cable reform in, 


Argentine, the, H. H. in, 95 
Argyll, Duke of, no 

supports H. H., in, 198, 225, 


Army and Navy Estimates, 17, 30 
Arnold, E. M., 50 
Artillery, Royal, officers of the, 156 
Asquith, Rt. Hon. H. H., as Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, 191 

on H. H., 198 

Athenaeum Club, the, 141 

Atherley, Hamilton, 120 

Australia, British Parliamentary party 

visit, 101 

cable communication with, 224, 


Australia, Carlyle's interest in, 151 

copper mines in, 159 

gold mining in, 10, 16, 160 

Government of, 79, 167, 168 

H. H.'s early life in, 4-9, 131, 

158-166, 216 

H. H.'s library on, 122 

H. H. visits, 71, 85, 95-102, 

141, 153, 168, 192, 220, 242 

introduction of sheep into, 1 65 
its contingent in the Darda- 

nelles, 169 

its Navy, 101 

" Member for," vii, 10, 169 

postal communications of , n, 31, 
174, 180-184, 199, 200, 210, 215- 

Sir George Reid, High Com- 
missioner for, 43, 48 

tin-mines in, 165 

Australian Banks, their testimonia 

to H. H., 242 
Commonwealth Building, the, 

Australian Dictionary of Dates and 

Men of the Time, The, g, 159 
Australian Town and County Journal, 

5, 6 
Austria, postal system of, 188, 279 

Back River, the, 149, 150 

Baker, Captain E. J., 72 

Balcarres, Lord, as Junior Whip, 27 

Balfour, Lady Frances, 113 

Balfour, Rt. Hon. A. J., 15, 107, ill 

defeated in 1906, 30, 31, 86 

his gum-trees, 20 

Sir H. Parkes on, 167 

Ballarat, 168 

Bally hooley, 137 

Banks, Sir John, Queen's Physician, 


Barlow, Sir Thomas, 139 
Barrow-in-Furness, 133 
Barton, Mrs, of Geneva, 251 
Bath, H. H. at, 139 

Mr Birrell at, 22 



Bath Club, the, 197 

H. H. at, 71, 103, 135, 147 

Baxter, Mr, advocates Anglo-Ameri- 
can Penny Postage, 191 

Bay ley, G. B., 50 

Beach, Mr Hicks, in Buenos Ayres, 95 

Beach, W. W., his silence as M.P., 

Beechworth, Victoria, 161 

Belfast, 239, 269 

Belgium, cable service to, 140, 268 
marriage in, 113 

Bell, Moberly, anecdote of, 113 
Sir J. C., Lord Mayor, 225 

Bennett, E., 50 

his tribute to H. H., 203 

Bennett, Rose, her marriage with 
H. H., 6-8 

Bennett, Samuel, doyen of Australian 
journalists, 5, 6, 166 

Sir George Reid's tribute to, vii 

Benson, Archbishop, his letter to 
H. H., 46 

Beresford, Lord Charles, ix, 15 

on Penny Postage, 31-33 

Berlin, International Telegraphic Con- 
ference, 10, 8 1 

Berne, H. H. at, 250 

Berwick-on-Tweed, 1 73 

Besant, Mrs, 67 

Bexhill-on-Sea, H. H. at, 57, 138 

Biarritz, 190 

Bicester, Middleton Park, 99 

Big Ben, 18 

Diamond Syndicate, the, 161 

Bignold, Sir Arthur, on telegrams, 

Bills, James, 50 

Birch, James Woodford, murder of, 

Birmingham, 180, 242 

Birrell, Rt. Hon. Augustine, on 
Government Whips, 22 

Blackwood, Stevenson, 140 

Blyth, Lord, arranges the civic 
welcome of H. H., 242-246 

H. H.'s correspondence with, 

128, 138-142, 247 

his friendship with H. H., ix, 

49. 137 
his interest in Penny Postage, 

189-194, 247 

supports cable reform, 225 

Boer War, the, 227 

postal grievances of, 208, 209 

Boldrewood, Rolf, Robbery under 

Arms, 1 66 

Book-collector, H. H. as a, 103, 122 
Booth, General, 67 

Boothia, 149 

Bores, Parliamentary, 26 

Borton, Sir Neville, P.M.G. of Egypt, 

Boulanger, General, in Paris, 243 

Bourne, Hon. Clarence, Chief Secre- 
tary of Jamaica, 88 

Brackenbury, General Sir Henry, 
Lord Wolseley on, 156 

Bradlaugh, Charles, 15 

as a chess player, 51 

Bremen, 138 
Brian, M., P.M.G. of France, 190 
Bribery in Canterbury, 42 
Bridge, H. H.'s love of, 143 
Bright, Charles, on cheap cabling, 

John, 15 

Brindisi, 200 

Laurentius di, 61 

Brisbane, 9 

Bristol, 93 

Britain, Harry, inaugurates the Im- 
perial Press Conference, 227 

British Empire, federation of thei 

League, welcomes H. H., n, 242- 


British Navy, the, 154 

Parliamentary visit to Aus- 
tralia, 101 

Broadstairs, 206 

Brougham, Lord, his anecdote of a 
new M.P., 25 

Brown, Tom, sketches by, 143 

waiter, 18 

Browning, Robert, 207, 233 

Bruce, Sir Charles, ix 

his Mauritian policy, 80, 81 

his tribute to H. H., 176-179 

supports cable reform, 223 

Brunton, Sir Lauder, 122 

Bryce, Lord, on his Ambassadorship, 


Buchanan, Mr, 72 
Buckle, Mr, 166 
Buenos Ayres, H. H., in 95 
Bulwark, H.M.S., 31 
Burnham, Lord, 227 
Burns, John, High Commissioner for 

South Africa, 49 
Burrell, Hon. K. M. S., her marriage, 

ii, 119 
Burritt, Elihu, as postal reformer, 


Butt, Clara, 42 
Butters, J. S., 161 
Buxton, Viscount, as P.M.G., 191-194, 




Cable service, the, between the Cape 
and Australia, 10, 81, 224, 225 

between England, France and 

Belgium, 140, 268 

chess by, 52 

Deferred Message system, 228 

grievances in, 211 

H. H. advocates reforms in, 

157, 222-231 
jpenny-a-word, 49, 195, 222-231, 


Calais, postage to, 183, 187 
Calcutta, 74 
Callard, A. O., 50 

Cambon, H. E. Paul, French Am- 
bassador, 190 
Cambridge, University of, chess 

tournaments of, 54 
Camden Park, 165 
Cameron, Mr, storekeeper, 161 
Campbell - Bannerman, Sir Henry, 


Lord Charles Beresford on, 33 

Canada, Duke of Argyll, Governor 

of, no 

H. H. in, 87 

imperial news in, 227 

its postal system, 48, 178, 181, 

183, 258, 259 
Cannes, H. H. at, 66 
Canonization, the ceremony of, 59 
Canterbury, a fire at, 68 

Cricket Week, 41 

disfranchisement of, 42 

H. H. a Freeman of, n, 39. 

H. H. as M.P. for, n, 13, 37, 

39-50, 55. 63, 68, 87, 132. 135, 145, 


New Zealand, 43 

Cape Colony, its cable communi- 
cations, 81, 224 

its postal relations, 181, 201 

Carlsbad, 141 

H. H. in, 59, 108, 135, 138, 213, 

248-250, 252 

Carlton Club, the, 67, 246 

H. H. as member of, 83, 115, 

123. 137 
Carlyle, Life of, by Sir C. G. Duffy, 

Carlyle, Thomas, H. H.'s interview 

with, 151 

Carnarvon, Lord, H. H. meets, 140 
Carnegie, Andrew, on postage and 

peace, 156, 191, 192 
Carpathian, S.S., 98 

Carson, Sir Edward, on Home Rule, 

Carter, Paterson & Co., Messrs, 211, 


Cash-on-delivery system, the, 275 
Cavendish, Lord Richard, his sale 

of cattle, 141 
Cayzer, Sir Charles, 22 
Ceylon, H. H. in, 96 
Chalmers, Sir Robert, Governor of 

Ceylon, 96 
Chamberlain, Rt. Hon. Austen, ix 

his interest in Penny Postage, 

219, 220 

on telegraphic vagaries, 212 

Chamberlain, Joseph, 15 

his correspondence with H. H., 

39, 97 

his Fiscal policy, 33 

his interest in postal reform, 


Chamberlain, Mrs, 107 

Channel Tunnel, the, 187 

Chapman, Austin, P.M.G. of Aus- 
tralia, 182, 220 

Charing Cross Post Office, 238 

Cheeke, Oswald, his letter to Lady 
Heaton, 253 

Chess, H. H.'s love of, 51-56, 70, 103 

Chester, 173 

China, H. H. in, 82 

postal communication with, 200, 

207, 220 
Ching-Fong, Li, on Penny Postage, 

Chisholm, Mrs, the Emigrant's Friend, 


Choate, Joseph, his compliment, 122 
Churchill, Lord Randolph, anecdote 

of, 1 8 

as a chess-player, 51 

at Monte Carlo, 63 

H. H.'s relations with, 15, 17, 

18, 31 

Churchill, Major Winston, 108 
Chulan, Rapas, 77 
Cimiez, H. H. at, 63, 68 
Clarke, Sir Edward, 15, 49 
Clarke, Sir Fielding, in Jamaica, 89 
Clemens, Samuel, 197. See Twain 
Clerkington, 120 
Clifford, Sir Hugh and Lady, their 

friendship with H. H., 96 
Clinch, G., 50 
Cockburn, Sir John, 49 
Collard, Sir George, Mayor of Canter- 
bury, 39, 40 
Collins, Captain Muirhead, on cheap 

telegraphy, 225 


Collinson, explorer, 150, 151 
Cologne, H. H. at, 63 
Colombo, 72, 75 
Colonial Conference, First, 217 

Exhibition, Indian and, 10 

Hereditary Peerage, a, 167 

Office, its policy with regard 

to Mauritius, 79-81 

Parcel Post, 276 

visitors in England, no, 115, 134 

Colonies, the, their relations with 

England, 155 
Comet, wreck of the, 160 
Commerell, Admiral Sir Edward, 

his breach of parliamentary order, 

Compulsory training in New Zealand, 


Conciliation Bill, 21 

Conference, International Telegraphic, 
in Berlin, 10, 81 

Conservative Party, the, their defeat 
in 1906, 29, 31-33 

Constantine, Captain, in Jamaica, 88 

Cooper, Fenimore, novels of, 3 

Cooper, Thomas Sidney, R.A., 
anagram on, 148 

Cork, Hon. Mr, in Jamaica, 88 

Cotton, Sir Richmond, his address 
to H. H., 240 

Coupon reply stamps, 279 

Covarrubias,M.,on Penny Postage, 208 

Cowper, Maggie, 210 

Cricket, H. H.'s love of, 41, 48 

Cromwell, Oliver, 126 

Crowe, P. W., on H. H., 9 

Curzon of Kedleston, Earl, his cor- 
respondence with H. H., 35 

his tribute to H. H., ix, n, 242- 


Cust, Henry, on H. H. as corre- 
spondent, 121 


Daily Chronicle, The, quoted, 148 

Daily Graphic, The, ix 

Dardanelles, the, Australian con- 
tingent in, 169 

Dartmouth, Lord, on Anglo-French 
postage, 189 

Davidson, Colonel Sir Arthur, on 
Anglo-French postal relations, 190 

De La Rue, Messrs, their Post Office 
stationery contract, 200 

Denman, Lord, Governor-General of 
Australia, 99 

Denominational Schools of Australia, 9 

Deptford, M.P. for, 51 
Derby, Earl of, 218 
D'Eresby, Lord Willoughby, 120 
Devonshire, Duke of, 243 

his cattle sales, 142 

Disraeli, caricature of, 78 
on dinners, 105 

Divorce Laws Commission, the, 113 

Dixon, Charles, 143 

Dorchester, 274 

Dornoch, 156 

Doughty, Lady, as hostess, 109 

Dover, 187 

H. H. at, 213 

Dublin, 188, 239 

H. H. in, 140 

Dufferin, Lord, quoted, 171 

Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan, his career, 
167, 168 

his friendship with H. H., 34, 

65-68, 137, 151 

his Life of Carlyle, 66 

on Home Rule, 34, 140 

Dupont, Emil, advocates Anglo- 
French Penny Postage, 190 

Durban, 279 


Earthquakes, H. H.'s experience of, 

Eastern Telegraph Company, the, 

opposes Mauritian cable, 81, 224 
Eaton Square, H. H.'s home in, 78, 

105, 117-125, 209, 238 
Edinburgh, 239 

H. H. in, 58 

Mr Wallace M.P. for, 21 
Education, denominational, 9 
Edward VII., King, coronation of, 

1 06, 120 

his attitude to postal reforms, 
184, 189, 190, 213, 242 

kissed in Canterbury, 43 
Egyptian Post Office, the, 204, 236, 


Emden, sinking of the, 101 
England, invasion of, 170 
Express Delivery, 259 

Fallieres, President, in London, 192, 

Fergusson, Sir James, his postal 

proposal, 178 

in Jamaica, 88 



Fiji, cable to, 225 

H. H. in, 85 

postage to, 187 

Financial Review of Reviews, the, 

on cable reform, 223 
Fiscal Reform, Lord Charles Beres- 

ford on, 33 

Fleming, Canon, H. H. on, 121 
Fleming, Sir Sandford, his interest in 

cable reform, 225 
Forster, M.P., Arnold, in Jamaica, 88, 


Fort William, 87 
France, cable service to, 140 
its postal relations with England, 

183, 186-191, 201, 205 
Franco-British Exhibition, the, 1908, 

Franklin, Sir Benjamin, attends H. H. 

in Switzerland, 251, 252 
Franklin, Sir John, explorer, fate of, 

145, 149-151 
Fraser, Sir William, 34 
French, Viscount, supports H. H., 49, 

Furley, Walter, 40 

Galle, 75 

Gamble, Captain D. A., 47 

Gay Golfers' Club, the, 30 

Geard, Reginald, on H. H. at the 

Savage Club, 142-144 
Geneva, H. H.'s death and burial in, 

144, 248-253 

George III., King, his sheep, 165 
George IV., King, coronation of, 120 
George V., King, his regret at H. H.'s 

death, 254 

lays stone of Australian Com- 
monwealth Building, 141 
George, Rt. Hon. D. Lloyd, at Monte 

Carlo, 64 

encouraged by H. H., 20 

Germany, postal system of, 188, 190, 

268, 273, 279 
Gibraltar, 269 
Girard, Professor, attends H. H., 251, 

Gladstone, W. E., 15 

anecdotes of, 19 

bis Irish policy, 34, 67 

Sir Henry Parkes on, 167 

Glasgow, 239, 260 
Glenroy, S.S., 74 
Glossop, Captain John, 101 
Glyn, Elinor, 108 

Gold-mining in Australia, 10, 16, 


Goonoo Goonoo Gap, 158 
Gorst, Sir John, 15 
Goschen, Lord, 15, 1 8 
Goulbourn, 5 

Government annuities, 280 
Governor Ready, wreck of the, 160 
Graham, Sir James, First Lord of 

the Admiralty, 150 

his death, 168 

Grantham, 121 
Gravesend, 72 
Green, General Sir Harry Rhodes, 

1 06 

Gregory, John William, 104 
Gregson, Mrs G., 262 
Guatemala, 269 
Guildhall, H. H. at the, n, 21, 


Gully, Speaker, on chess, 52 
Guy's Hospital, 280 
Gwydyr, 4th Baron, 120 
5th Baron, 12, 119 


Haldane, Lord, in 

meets Senator Root, 141 

Half-penny Post, the, 209, 236, 269, 
278, 280 

Hall, Admiral Sir George King, 101 

Hall, W. R., 161 

Hall- Jones, Sir William, High Com- 
missioner for New Zealand, 48 

Halsbury, Lord, 13 

his letter to H. H., 138, 139 

Hamilton, Lord Claude, as a chess- 
player, 55 

enters Parliament with his 

brothers, 15 

Harcourt, Rt. Hon. Lewis, Secretary 
of State, 227 

his popularity, 29 

Harcourt, Lady, 107 

Harcourt, Sir William, 15, 275 

his correspondence with H. H., 

36, 140 
Hargreaves, Edward, 160 
Harris, Lord, 47 
Harrow, 33 
Hart, Sir Robert, in Pekin, 82 

in London, 83 

Hassall, John, his menu for the 

Savages, 143 

Hasted's History of Kent, 3 
Hearn, H. J., 50 
J- T., 50 


Heaton, Arthur Henniker, 53 

his marriage, 120 

Heaton, Elizabeth Ann, her marriage, 

1 20 
Heaton, Herbert Henniker, Assistant 

Colonial Secretary of Mauritius, 81 

his marriage, 120 

in Fiji, 85 

Heaton, Lt.-Col. John, 3 

Heaton, Sir John Henniker, his birth 

and education, 3, 4 
his early life in Australia, 4, 131, 

158-166, 174 

his journalistic experience, 5 

his marriage, 6-9 

contests N.S.W., 9 

as " Member for Australia," 


settles in London, 10 

is returned M.P. for Canterbury, 

ii, 13, 39-5. 8 7. 132 
his work as a Postal Reformer, 

ii, 13, 31, 83, 132, 171, 200-214, 

public recognition of his work, 

ii, 99, 240-247 

declines a K.C.M.G., ii 

his experiences as an M.P., 13- 

36, 106, 134-136 

as a chess-player, 51-56 

as a traveller, 57-102, 168 

as a host, 103-116, 134 
his home life, 117-125 

his personality, 126-130 

his friends, 137-157, 168 

advocates Universal Penny 
Postage, 174, 182 

advocates Imperial Penny Post- 

age, 175-182 

obtains Penny Postage to Aus- 
tralia, 182, 215-221 

advocates Anglo-French Penny 
Post, 187-193 

obtains Penny Postage to 
U.S.A., 191-197 

advocates penny-a-word tele- 
grams, 199, 222-231 

his ideal post office, 233-239 
his death, 248-254 

Heaton, Sir John Henniker, son of 

H. H., ii, 119, 254 
Heaton, Lady Henniker, 82 
Lord Westbury's letters to, 249- 


Heaton, Peter Joseph Henniker, 22 
Heaton, Reginald Henniker, 14, 120 
Heaton, Rose Henniker, her marriage, 

102, 120 
Heaton, William, ix 

Hegel, quoted, 129 note 
Hennessy, Sir John Pope, as] Gover- 
nor of Mauritius, 79 

his friendship with H. H., 79, 


Henniker, John, 3 
Hicks-Beach, Mr, in Buenos Ayres, 


Sir Michael, 15, 95 

Hill, Harrison, his verses on Macdona, 

Hill, Sir Rowland, Father of Penny 

Postage, 99, 173, 178, 241 
Holker Hall, Lancashire, 141 
Holland, 268 

Sir William, supports cable 

reform, 225 
Holt, P. H., 50 
Home Rule for Ireland, 15, 34, 67, 

80, 140, 145 
Hong Kong, 183 
H. H. in, 89 

Hope, Anthony, on H. H.'s name, 


Houghton-le-Spring, 262 
House of Commons, the chess-players 
of, 51-56 

- H. H. as a host at, 112, 134, 

- H. H. as a member of, 13-38 

H. H.'s description of life in, 


Houstoun, Colonel, 120 
Howard, Cardinal, 60 
Hudson Bay Company, the, 150 
Hughes, Sir Thomas and Lady, in 

Sydney, 168 

Idris, Sultan, 77 

Imperial Chess Club, the, 55 

Imperial Penny Postage, H. H. as 

Father of, ii, 30, 31, 56, 66, 98- 

100, in, 144, 154 

Hassall's tribute to, 144 

Lord Charles Beresford on, 31 

Imperial Press Conference, the first, 


Inchiquin, Lord, 153 
India, H. H. in, 82 

postal system of, 178, 183, 200, 

236, 273 
Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 

London, 10 

International Postage, 176 
Telegraphic Conference in Berlin, 

10, 81 



Ireland, H. H.'s love of, 58 

Home Rule for, 15, 34, 67, 80, 

140. M5 

Irish Land Bills, 14 
Members of Parliament, 15 

acks, Newton, 30 

amaica, H. H. in, 87 

ameson Raid, the, 32 

apan, divorce laws in, 113 

H. H. in, 57, 82 

postal system of, 220 

Jenner, Sir William, on Monte Carlo, 


Jersey, Lord, his support of penny- 
a-word telegrams, 223 

his tribute to H. H., 99, 100 

Johnson, Captain, 159 
Johnson, Dr Samuel, on London, 58 
Matthey & Co., Messrs, metal- 
lurgists, 17 
Jones, Atherley, 52 
ones, Henry Arthur, at Windsor, 152 
ournalists, Carnegie on, 156 
Jupiter, wreck of the, 160 


Keicktak, 149 

Kendall, Henry, his Rose Lorraine, 6 

Kent, H. H.'s love of, 41. 47 

House School, 4 

Kent, H.M.S., 47 

Killanin, Lord, his anecdotes, 106 

his friendship with H. H., 106, 

r 37 

Kilmainham, Parnell in, 16 

King, Yeend, V.P.R.I., at the Savage 
Club, 144 

King's College, London, H. H. edu- 
cated at, 4 

H. H. a Fellow of, 242 

School, Canterbury, 41 

King William Land, 149 

Kingston, Jamaica, H. H. in, 87-94 

Kipling, Rudyard, on postal reform, 


quoted, 70, 94, 130, 165 

Kitchener, Colonel, in Jamaica, 88 
Kitchener, Earl, his tribute to H. H., 

public grant for, 20 

Labouchere, Henry, anecdotes of, 27 
his opposition to Gladstone, 67 

Labour Party, the, 32 

Labre, Joseph, 61 

Lagos Bay, 31 

Lambert, Captain Thomas, 40 

Lambeth Palace, 22 

Landale family, the, 165 

Larking, R., 50 

Lascelles, Mr, 197 

Laurent, Dr, his tribute to H. H., 82 

Law, Rt. Hon. Bonar, as a chess- 
player, 54 

at the United Service Club, 141 

Lawson, Hon. Harry, 227 

Lawson, Sir Wilfrid, on his bull, 142 

on H. H.'s postal reforms, 185 

Lefroy, Dean, letters of, 140, 154, 
1 86 

Leisure Hour, The, ix 

Le May, W. H., 50 

Lemieux, Hon. R., P.M.G. of Canada, 
223, 226 

Leo XIII., Pope, 60, 62 

Liberal victory of 1906, 29, 31-33 

Limerick, Ireland, 216 

Lipton, Sir Thomas, 123 

Liverpool, 239, 281 

Lockwood, Frank, 15 

Loder, Gerald, in Jamaica, 90 

Lodgers' letters, 273 

London, H. H. a Freeman of, n, 240 

H. H. settles in, 10 

pageant of, 197 

Bishop of, quoted, 203 

Londonderry, Lord, as P.M.G. , 207, 

Longworth, Mrs Nicholas, 107 

Senator the Hon. Nicholas, 191 

advocates postal reform, 191 

Lucas, E. V., quoted, 171 

Lucerne, 272 

Lyttelton, Rt. Hon. Alfred, his 
interest in Penny Postage, 219 

on cricket, 48 


Macalister, J. Y. W., 266 
MacArthur, John, Father of N.S.W., 


Macaulay, Lord, quoted, 175 
Macdona, Gumming, M.P. for Rother- 

hithe, 29 
Mackenzie, Mr, High Commissioner 

for New Zealand, 139 


Maclaren, Ian, quoted, 127 

Madden, Admiral, his marriage, 22 

Madeira, 262 

Madras, 74 

Magazine post, 277 

Mah6, Seychelles Is., 76 

Mahon, the O'Gorman, 52 

Maids of Kent, the, 47 

Major, Professor, 251 

Malaga, 282 

Maloja, R.M.S., 98 

Manchester, 239 

Manchester Courier, The, on H. H., 


Mandat-carte system, the, 273 
Marconi, Commendatore, meets 

Maxim, 129 

H. H.'s belief in, 228, 229 

entertained by the Savages, 143 

his friendship with H. H., ix, 

49. 97. IQ 6, I0 7 IO 9. IIO > I2 9, I3&> 

152, 153, 225 

his marriage, 153 

supports penny-a-word tele- 
grams, 223 
Marconi, Degnia, 109 
Markham, Admiral Sir Albert, on 

H. H., 212 

Marlborough, the Duchess of, 107 
Marples, George, of Omaha, 259 
Marriage Acts, 30, 113 
Martin, Robert, his friendship with 

H. H., 137 

Massingham, Mr, on H. H., 203 
Maurice, Sir Frederick, Lord Wolseley 

on, 156 
Mauritius, 74 
H. H.'s warm relations with, 

78-82, 224 
Maxim, Sir Hiram, invention by, 

M'Carthy, Justin, his correspondence 

with H. H., 37, 112 
M'Clintock, explorer, 151 
Medway, the, 3 

Melba, Madame, anecdote of, 101 
Melbourne, 215 

Sir C. G. Duffy in, 168 

Men of Kent and Kentish Men, the, 

H. H. as President of, 47-50 
Mercury, The, Parramatta, 5 
Mermaid, wreck of the, 159 
Messina, Straits of, 71 
Methuen, Messrs, 171 
Meyer, George, advocates Anglo- 
American Penny Postage, 191, 192 
Meynell, Mrs, her influence, 144 
Meynell, Wilfred, his tribute to H. H., 

ix, 145-148 

Meynell, Wilfred, H. H.'s friendship 

with, 144 

quoted, 114 

Mexico, postal system of, 188, 207 
Michael Angelo Buonarroti, 59 
Milner, Lord, supports H. H., 225, 


M'Kenna, Rt. Hon. Reginald, in 
as a chess-player, 52, 53 

Money Orders, system of, 201, 272, 


Monte Carlo, H. H. at, 63-65, 135 
Montefalco, Clara de, 61 
Montgomery, Captain, 279 
Moore, Frankfort, 30 
Morley, Earl, 141 
Morris, Judge, 106 

Sir Daniel, in Jamaica, 88 

Motley, John Lothrop, Rise of the 

Dutch Republic, 4 
Motor Mail Coaches, 274 
Mount Etna, 71 

Pleasant, 171 

Mulock, Mr, P.M.G. of Canada, 179, 

Murray, David, R.A., at Windsor, 

Murray, Freeman, assists in the 

welcome to H. H., 246 
Murray, G. H., on circulars, 207 


Natal, cable communications with, 

Sir W. Peace, Agent-General 

for, 181 

Nation, The, foundation of, 168 

Navy Estimates, the, 17, 24 

New Caledonia, 225 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 46, 133 

New El Dorado, 161 

Newnes, Sir George, as a chess- 
player, 51 

on Rougemont, 115 

New Ross, 1 68 

New South Wales, H. H. contests, 9 

John Mac Arthur, Father of, 165 

represented by H. H. in Amster- 

dam and London, 10 

Sir J. P. Hennessy offered the 

government of, 79 

Newspapers, postage of, 237, 239, 
271, 277 

Newton, Sir William, his corre- 
spondence with H. H., 78 

New York, 183, 258 

H. H. in, 105 



New Zealand, compulsory training 

in, 139 

Governorship of, 1 1 1 

offers support to the British 

Navy, 154 
Penny Postage to, 31, 217, 218, 

Sir J. M. Ward as P.M.G. of, 

Nice, H. H. at, 102, 205 

Sir C. G. Duffy at, 34, 65 

Nichols, Willie, songs by, 143 
Nineteenth Century, The, ix, 119 

A Morning with the P.M.G., 257 

postage of, 272, 277 

Nobel Peace Prize, the, H. H. a 

candidate for, 242 
Norfolk, the Duke of, as P.M.G., 176, 


Northcliffe, Lord, 227 
Northcote, Lord, Governor-General 

of Australia, 215 
Norwich, 275 

Dean Lefroy of, 186 

Nurnberg, the, sunk by H.M.S. Kent, 



O'Brien, Hon. Beatrice, her marriage, 


Obstructionist policy, the, 127 
O'Connell, Daniel, his trial, 168 
O'Connor, T. P., his friendship with 

H. H., ix, 131-137 
Odell, " Harvest Home," 143 
O'Grady, Mike, 106 
Omdurman, 20 
Oxford pageant, the, 197 
University of, chess tournaments 

of, 54 
Yeomanry, the, 1 1 

Paganini, method of, 198 
Paget, Mr and Mrs Algernon, ix, 120 
Paisley, Earl Rosebery at, 216 
Pall Mall Club, the, H. H. at, 148 
Panama Canal, the, 35, 67 
Pankhurst, Christabel, apologizes for 

militancy, 21 

Parcel Post, the, 237, 238, 260., 276 
Paris, 243, 274, 275 

H. H. in, 190 

telephonic communication with 

London, 268 

Parkes, Sir Henry, his influence on 

H. H., 67, 166 
Parks Government, the, 9 
Parliamentary etiquette, 19, 23, 28 
Parnell, Charles, as a chess-player, 51, 

H. H.'s friendship with, 15, 


Parramatta, H. H. in, 5, 166 
Party politics, Lord Charles Beresford 

on, 32 

Pasture, Mrs Henry de la, 96 
Patey, Admiral Sir George, 101 
Patriotism, Lord Charles Beresford 

on, 32 

Patterson, A. B., quoted, 174 
Patti, Adelina, 233 
Pau, H. H. in, 66 
Peace, Sir Walter, Agent-General 

for Natal, 181 
Pearson, Arthur, 227 
Peel, Rt. Hon. A. W., 15 

Sir Robert, 15, 25, 251 

Penny Post, The, H. H. edits, 5 

Penny Postage, the, viii, n 

Imperial, H. H. advocates, 175- 

182, 217-221 
supported by the Times, 


Inland, 173 

Ocean, 173 

Universal, in, 174, 182-186, 

208, 218 

Perak, Sultans of, 76, 77 
Peshawur, S.S., H. H.'s voyage on, 


Philately, H. H.'s love of, 78 
Phillips, John, wireless operator, 98 
Phillips, Sir Owen, Chairman of the 

R.M.S., 94 

supports cable reform, 225 

Pickford, Messrs, 211 

Pigott, Dr Turtle, 144 

Pigott, Mostyn, 143 

Pilcher, R., 50 

Pillar-boxes, 279 

Pills, advertisement of, 205 

Pirie, D. V., on Anglo-French postage, 

1 86 
Plumbers, Worshipful Company of, 


Plummer, Edward, 40 
Plunkett, Sir Horace, 52 
Poetry, H. H.'s love of, 121 
Pope, Alexander, Essay on Man 4. 
Port Antonio, Jamaica, H. H, in 


Port Kingston, S.S., 93 
Port Raffles, 160 


Port Said, H. H. at, 225 
Porter, Colonel Morton, 120 
Porter, Major Adrian, King's Mes- 
senger, 102, 120 
Postal Cards, 269 

Estimates, the, 209 

Guide, the, 278 

Orders, poundage on, 20, 265 

Reforms, advocated by H H., 

viii, 37, 49, 233-239, 257-282 

compensation questions, 211 

getting a letter back, 108 

for postage due, 65, 196, 277 

Penny Postage, viii, n, 37, 

49, 135, 175-186, 217-221 

red book of stamps, 204, 271 

Postal Union, the Congress at Wash- 
ington, 178 

Congress at Rome, 184 

Postmarks, system of, 84, 85, 205, 

209, 276, 277 

Postmaster-General, the, " A morning 
with," 257-282 

harassed by H. H., 13, 49, 95, 

132, 245 

Post Office, the evolution of, 171-173 

rebellion in, 140 

Post Office Savings Bank, 236, 275, 


Post Office Vote, the, 24 
Preferential tariffs, 276 
Press Conference, first Imperial, 226 
Protection, policy of, 32, 33 
Punch, 62 


Queensland, 217 

Questions in Parliament, 14, 24, 132 


Rae, Dr John, explorer, 145, 149-151 

Raffles Bay, 159 

Raikes, Cecil, as P.M.G., 13, 133, 140, 

Randies, Sir John, his letter to H. H., 

Ranfurly, Earl, ex-Governor of New 

Zealand, in 
Rawson, Mrs Arthur, founds the 

Imperial Chess Club, 55 
Redmond, John, his friendship with 

H. H., 137 

Redmond, William, 123, 137 
Registration fees, 277 

rleid, Sir George, anecdotes of, 43, 


High Commissioner for Aus- 
tralia, 48, 141 

his tribute to H. H., vii-ix 

Reid, Whitelaw, American Ambas- 
sador, 107, 140, 191-194 

Renown, S.S., 225 

Renshaw, Colonel Charles, ix 

Review of Reviews, The, 67 

Rhodes, Rt. Hon. Cecil, on Penny 
Postage, 154 

Richard III., Tree as, 109, no 

Ridge, Pett, novels of, 123 

Riley, James Whitcomb, 147 

Rio de Janeiro, H. H. in, 94, 95 

Ritchie, M.P., 35 

Roberts, Earl, 140 

on Penny Postage, 184 

Roberts, Rev. C. F., 262 

Robertson, J. P. B., 15 

Rochester, H. H.'s birth and child- 
hood at, 3 

Rome, H. H. in, 59, 66 
family, the, 165 

Rome, Claude, 138 

Roosevelt, Alice, 107 

Roosevelt, Theodore, as President, 107 

his interest in postal questions, 

191, 195 

Root, Senator Elihu, at the United 
Service Club, 141 

on Anglo-American Penny Post- 
age, 194 

Rose Lorraine, 6-8 

Rosebery, Earl, on Penny Postage, 

Rosmead, Lord, his friendship with 
H. H., 137 

Rossi, Joannes Baptista, 61 

Rotherhithe, the M.P. for, 29, 30 

Rougemont, Louis de, 115 

Royal Colonial Institute, the, con- 
siders penny-a-word telegrams, 223, 

H. H. a Fellow of, 242 

Royal Society of Literature, the, 
H. H. a Fellow of, 242 

Rumford, Kennerly, 42 

Rural postmen, 280 

Russell, Sir Charles, 15 

his love of chess, 51 

Russell of Killowen, Lord, his friend- 
ship with H. H., 105, 137 

Russia, Labouchere in, 27 

Rutherford, Watson, M.P., on H. H. 
as a chess-player, 54 

Ryan, P. F. W., his Stuart Life and 
Manners, 171 



Saba Pasha, his friendship with H. H., 


Salisbury, Marchioness of, 20 
Salisbury, Marquess of, as Premier, 


H. H. on, 140 

Lord Randolph on, 18 

Sir C. G. Duffy on, 35 

on H. H., 20 

Sample Post, 200, 278 

Samuel, Rt. Hon. Herbert, as P.M.G., 

ix, 49, 204-206, 228, 232, 245 

Sir Saul, opposes Imperial 

Penny Postage, 217 
Sargent, John, 126, 147 
Sassoon, Sir Edward, 35 
his interest in postal reform, 


supports cable reform, 225 

Saunderson, Colonel, 15 

Savage Club, the, H. H. at, 109, 142- 


Scotland, H. H. on, 58, in 
Seaman, Sir Owen, quoted, 62 
Senham, Hennikers of, 3 
Sevastopol, 106 
Seychelles, Abdullah's banishment in 

the, 76, 77 
Shamrock, the, 123 
Shaughnessy, Sir Thomas, President 

of the C.P.R., 87 
Shaw, Sir Charles, 52 
Sheffield, 155 

Shelley, P. B., quoted, 121 
Sheridan, R. B., quoted, 122 
Shine, A. H., 50 
Simla, Viceregal Lodge, 35 
Sinclair, Archdeacon, at Windsor, 

Singapore, 77 

Skibo Castle, 156 

Smith, W. H., 15, 1 8 

Snead-Cox, Mr, his tribute to, H. H., 


Society Islands, the, 187 
South Africa, postal system of, 


African War, the, 32, 227 

America, H. H. in, 94, 95 

Southampton, H. H. at, 94, 138 
South Australia, 217 

Chief -Justice of, 71 

Spender, J. A., 227 

Spicer, Sir Albert, supports cable 

reform, 225 

Stamfordham, Lord, 254 
meets Lord Blyth, 141 

Stanley, Lord, as P.M.G., 184, 202, 


Stanley, H. M., on London, 142 
Stead, W. T., H. H.'s intercourse with, 


his ghost, 67 

Stephens, Brunton, 166 
Stevenson, R. L., 118 
St George of England, Royal Society 
of, in 

St Martin's-le-Grand, 181 
relations of H. H. with, 15, 198, 

203, 204, 209 
Stone, Sir Benjamin, photographs 

by, 34, 106 

Storrie, A. L., quoted, 71 
Strathcona, Lord, High Commissioner 

for Canada, 48, 49 

his tribute to H. H., 137 

supports penny-a-word tele- 
grams, 223, 225 
Strickland, Sir Gerald, Governor of 

N.S.W., 101, 169 
Strong, Sir Vesey, Lord Mayor of 

London, 139, 229-231 
Suffragettes, 21 
Sullivan, Sir Arthur, anecdote of, 


Sunday, observance of, 46 
post, the, 260, 261 

Swettenham, Sir Alexander, Governor 

of Jamaica, 88, 92 
Sir Frank, his Malay Sketches, 


Swiftsure, wreck of the, 159 
Switzerland, postal system of, 


Sydney, 159 
H. H. in, 5-9, 95, 98, 101, 102, 

1 66, 1 68 

Samuel Bennett in, viii, 5 

Sydney, H.M.A.S., 101 
Symon, Sir Josiah, 71 

Talbot-Crosbie, Lindsay, 120 
Tarn worth, M.P. for, 25 
Tasmania, 159 

H. H. represents, in Berlin, 10 

Telegrams, penny-a-word, 55, 199, 
205, 222-231, 245, 258, 268 

reply forms, 264-266 

Telegraph Department, vagaries of, 

211, 266 

Money Order, the, aoi, 272, 


Telegraphic Conference in Berlin, 

International, 10, 81 
reforms advocated by H. H., 

13. 24 

Telephone service, the, 268 
Temple, Archbishop, 39, 45 

Sir Richard, 15 

Tennant, Sir David, Agent-General 

for the Cape, 181 
Tenterfield races, 159 
Thomas, Hon. Josiah, P.M.G. of 

Australia, 215, 220 
Thompson, Henry, 50 
Thompson, Miss Skemngton, 145 
Thunderbolt, Captain, bushranger, 

Thurn, Sir Everard im, Governor of 

Fiji, 85 
Times, The, ix, 5, 52, 67 

governed by Moberly Bell, 113 

Parnell forgeries in, 16 

supports H. H., 175. 181, 201, 

210, 219 

Timora Gold Field, 10 
Tipperary, 65 

Titanic, loss of the, 97, 98, 152 
Tokio, H. H. in, 105 
Torch, H.M.S., 53 
Torres Straits, 159 
Toryism in Canterbury, 39 
Townshend, Mr, 161 
Tree, Sir Herbert Beerbohm, as 

Richard III., 109, no 
Trocadero, the, H. H. feted at, 48 
Truth, 27 
Turkish bath, the, H. H.'s belief in, 


Twain, Mark, anecdotes by, 103-105 
his letter to H. H. on postage, 

Tweedmouth, Lord, in 


United Service Club, the, 141, 194 

United States of America, divorce 
laws of, 114 

H. H. in. 83-85 

chess tournament with the 

H.O.C., 52 

land an armed force in Jamaica, 


Penny Postage between Eng- 
land and, n, 36, 83, 135, 157, 
188, 191-197, 207, 247 

Universal Penny Postage, Duke of 
Argyll on, in 

H. H. advocates, 174, 182 

Vaughan, Archbishop, on denomina- 
tional education, 9 

Father Bernard, anecdote of, 


Victoria, Australia, 217 

Sir C. G. Duffy in, 168 

Victoria, Queen, anecdote of, 180 

coronation of, 120 

Diamond Jubilee of, 177 

her letter to H. H., 242 

visits Canterbury, 43 

Villiers, Rev Henry Montague, bis 

cable grievance, 211 
Virginian, S.S., 98 


Wace, Dean, 40 

on early rising, 103 

Wacher, Dr Frank, 40 
Wagga Wagga, N.S.W., 161 
Walker, Alexander, constable, 159 
Walking-sticks, H. H.'s collection of, 

Wall, Edward Cant, secretary to 

H. H., 119 

Wallace, Mr, death of, 21 
Waller, George Platt, American Vice- 

Consul in Carlsbad, 248, 249 
Walter, Arthur, encourages chess, 52 
Walton, Sir Joseph, in Paris, 190 
Wanamaker, Hon. John, advocates 

Anglo-American Penny Post, 83, 

191, 192 
his friendship with H. H., 44- 

46, 83, 147 
Ward, Dudley, M.P., anecdote of, 


Ward, Frederick, bushranger, 158 
Ward, Hon. Mrs John, 107 
Ward, Sir Joseph, advocates Penny 

Postage, 182, 184, 218 

in Canterbury, 43 

Prime Minister of N.Z., 

154. 230 
War Office, the, 24 

H. H. crosses swords with, 33 

Warwick, Australia, 159 
Washington, 52 

Postal Congress at, 178 


Way, Sir Samuel, entertains H. H., 


Webbe, A. J., his daughters, 123-125 
Webster, Sir Richard, as M.P., 15, 

Weekly Graphic, The, ix 



Wellington, the Duke of, 33, 57 

N.Z., 271 

Wentworth, William Charles, quoted, 

Westbury, Lord, his kindness to 

H. H., 249-252 
Western Australia, 217 

gold in, 1 6 

government of, 79 

West Indies, the, H. H. in, 87-94, 

1 02 
Westminster Bridge, 18 

Palace Hotel, the, 178 

Whips, Government, 22, 23, 27 
Whittaker, T. S., 50 
Whittingehame, gum-trees at, 20 
Wickham, F., 262 
Wicklow, Parnell in, 17 
Wilkens, H. T., 50 
William IV., coronation of, 120 
Wilson, John, 180 

Wireless Telegraphy, H. H. on, 228 

Wolseley, Field-Marshal Viscount, 
on the education of officers, 155, 

Women Suffrage, H. H. as an advo- 
cate of, 21 

Woodbridge, Suffolk, 271 

Woolwich, officers' education at, 156 

Arsenal, 275 

Worcester, 173 

Yokohama harbour, 95 
York, 260 

Zurich, H. H. at, 251 

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